Advertisement

African Archaeological Review

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 205–222 | Cite as

Ritual in the Hunter-Gatherer/Early Pastoralist Period: Evidence from Tsodilo Hills, Botswana

  • Sheila Coulson
  • Phillip Segadika
  • Nick Walker
Original Article

Abstracts

Two unusual sets of artefacts, the base of a pointed-bottom pot and a cluster of impact-fractured armatures, from the upper deposits of excavations at Rhino Cave and Corner Cave, Tsodilo Hills, will be presented and a range of interpretations explored. These artefacts are directly associated with rock carvings or cupules. Previously unpublished local oral accounts relating to cave and open-air localities at Tsodilo Hills will also be presented. Recurrent components of ritual behaviours provide a perspective from which to interpret these archaeological finds. It will be argued that the sets of artefacts represent ritual offerings made at these sites during the hunter-gatherer/early pastoralist period (also commonly referred to as the Later Stone Age/Early Iron Age).

Keywords

Pointed-bottom pot Segments Impact fracture Rock carvings Local accounts San Hambukushu Rhino Cave Corner Cave Ancestors’ Cave Dama 

Résumé

Deux ensembles d’artéfacts insolites, la base d’un pot à fond pointu et un amas d’armatures fracturées d’impact, provenant des dépôts supérieurs des fouilles menées à Rhino Cave et Corner Cave, Tsodilo Hills, seront présentés et un éventail d’interprétations exploré. Ces artéfacts sont directement associés aux sculptures rupestres ou cupules. Des récits oraux locaux en rapport avec des localités troglodytes ou de plein air à Tsodilo Hills, jusqu’alors inédits, seront également présentés. Des éléments récurrents de comportements rituels offrent une perspective à partir de laquelle interpréter ces découvertes archéologiques. Il sera soutenu que les ensembles d’artéfacts représentent des offrandes rituelles faites sur ces sites pendant la période chasseur-cueilleur/début de la période des pastorialiste (aussi communément appelée Later Stone Age/Early Iron Age).

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors SC and NW wish to express their gratitude to the Administrators of the University of Botswana and University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San Research and Development (NUFU PRO 20/96) for their considerable support throughout the many years of this investigation. We also wish to thank the History Department of the University of Botswana and the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Oslo for additional financial backing, particularly to facilitate student participation in this project. We also wish to acknowledge the assistance of the members of staff of the Department of National Museum of Monuments and Art Gallery of Botswana. Our appreciation goes to the following colleagues who commented on an early version of this manuscript: Jim Denbow, Per Ditlef Fredriksen, Sigrid Staurset, Karim Sadr and Ed Wilmsen. We also extend our gratitude to the two anonymous reviewers whose helpful insights improved the manuscript. Special thanks, from SC, to the Department of National Museum of Monuments and Art Gallery of Botswana for making available the facilities required to complete this manuscript and to the Institute of Archaeology, Conservation and History Research Fund, University of Oslo, for granting sabbatical. Research (by SC and NW) was carried out under the Government of Botswana research permit OP 46/1 XCVI (86).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Funding

Author Sheila Coulson’s research was funded by the University of Botswana and University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San Research and Development (Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education-NUFU PRO 20/96) and by the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Oslo, Norway. Co-author Nick Walker’s research was funded by the History Department of the University of Botswana and in part by the University of Botswana and University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San Research and Development (Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education-NUFU PRO 20/96).

References

  1. Barton, R. N. E., & Bergman, C. A. (1982). Hunters at Hengistbury: Some evidence from experimental archaeology. World Archaeology, 14, 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergman, C. A., & Newcomer, M. H. (1983). Flint arrowhead breakage: Examples from Ksar Akil, Lebanon. Journal of Field Archaeology, 10, 238–243.Google Scholar
  3. Bernard, P.S. (2003). Ecological implications of water spirit beliefs in Southern Africa: The need to protect knowledge, nature, and resource rights. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-27, 148-154.Google Scholar
  4. Biesele, M. (1974). A note on the beliefs of the modern Bushmen concerning the Tsodilo Hills. Newsletter of the South West Africa Scientific Society, 15(3-4), 1–3.Google Scholar
  5. Boyer, P. (2001). Religion explained: The evolutionary origins of religious thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Brook, G. (2010). The paleoenvironment of Tsodilo. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 30–50). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  7. Brook, G. A., Railsback, L. B., Campbell, A. C., Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M. L., Hodgins, G., & McHugh, J. (2011). Radiocarbon ages for coatings on cupules ground in quartzite bedrock at Rhino Cave in the Kalahari Desert of Botswana, and their paleoclimatic significance. Geoarchaeology, 26(1), 61–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cahen, D., & Moeyersons, J. (1977). Subsurface movements of stone artefacts and their implications for the prehistory of Central Africa. Nature, 266(5605), 812–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, A., & Coulson, D. (1988). Cultural confrontation at Tsodilo. Optima, 36, 12–19.Google Scholar
  10. Campbell, A., & Robbins, L. (2009). Tsodilo Hill, Botswana. Adoranten, 34–48.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, A., & Robbins, L. (2010). Rock art at Tsodilo. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 96–115). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, A., Robbins, L., Taylor, M. (2010a). Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari. East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  13. Campbell, A. C. (1969). Notes on some rock paintings at Savuti. Botswana Notes & Records, 2, 15–23.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, A. C. (2010). Visiting Tsodilo: Preparing the imagination. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 16–30). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, A. C., Denbow, J., Wilmsen, E. (1994a). Paintings like engravings: Rock art at Tsodilo. In T. A. Dowson & D. J. Lewis-Williams (Eds.), Contested images: Diversity in Southern African rock art research (pp. 131-158). Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Press.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, A. C., Hitchcock, R., & Bryan, M. (1980). Rock art at Tsodilo, Botswana. South African Journal of Science, 71, 476–478.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, A. C., Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M. L. (1994b). Oral traditions and archaeology of the Tsodilo Hills Male Hill Cave. Botswana Notes & Records, 26, 37-54.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, A. C., Robbins, L. H., & Murphy, M. L. (2010b). Cupules and grooves. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 64-72). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  19. Clottes, J. (2009). Sticking bones into cracks in the Upper Palaeolithic. In C. Renfrew & I. Morley (Eds.), Becoming human: Innovation in prehistoric material and spiritual culture (pp. 195–211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Coulson, S. (2004). Report on archaeological fieldwork. Oslo/Gaborone: The University of Botswana and the University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for Basarwa Research (NUFU PRO 20/96).Google Scholar
  21. Coulson, S. (2005). Report on archaeological fieldtrips. Oslo/Gaborone: The University of Botswana and the University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San/Basarwa Research (NUFU PRO 20/96).Google Scholar
  22. Coulson, S. (2006). Report on archaeological fieldwork. Oslo/Gaborone: The University of Botswana and the University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San/Basarwa Research (NUFU PRO 20/96).Google Scholar
  23. Coulson, S., Staurset, S., Walker, N. J. (2011). Ritualized behavior in the Middle Stone Age: Evidence from Rhino Cave, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. PaleoAnthropology, 18-61.Google Scholar
  24. Coulson, S., & Walker, N. (2002). Report on archaeological fieldwork. Oslo/Gaborone: The University of Botswana and the University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San/Basarwa Research (NUFU PRO 20/96).Google Scholar
  25. Coulson, S., & Walker, N. (2003). Report on archaeological fieldwork. Oslo/Gaborone: The University of Botswana and the University of Tromsø Collaborative Programme for San/Basarwa Research (NUFU PRO 20/96).Google Scholar
  26. Denbow, J. (1986). A new look at the later prehistory of the Kalahari. The Journal of African History, 27(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Denbow, J. (1990). Congo to Kalahari: Data and hypotheses about the political economy of the western stream of the Early Iron Age. African Archaeological Review, 8, 139–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Denbow, J. (2011). Excavations at Divuyu, Tsodilo Hills. Botswana Notes & Records, 43, 76–94.Google Scholar
  29. Denbow, J., Smith, J., Mathibidi Ndobochani, N., Atwood, K., & Miller, D. (2008). Archaeological excavations at Bosutswe, Botswana: Cultural chronology, paleo-ecology and economy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, 459–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Denbow, J. R., & Wilmsen, E. N. (1986). Advent and course of pastoralism in the Kalahari. Science, New Series, 234(4783), 1509–1515.Google Scholar
  31. Dockall, J. E. (1997). Wear traces and projectile impact: A review of the experimental and archaeological evidence. Journal of Field Archaeology, 24(3), 321–331.Google Scholar
  32. Donahue, R. E., Murphy, M. M., & Robbins, L. H. (2004). Lithic microwear analysis of Middle Stone Age artifacts from White Paintings Rock Shelter, Botswana. Journal of Field Archaeology, 29(1/2), 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donahue, R. E., & Robbins, L. H. (1989). Evidence of microwear on tools from the Tsodilo Hills Depression Site, Botswana. Nyame Akuma, 31, 8–11.Google Scholar
  34. Dowson, T. A. (1998). Rain in Bushman belief, politics and history: The rock-art of rain-making in the south-eastern mountains, Southern Africa. In C. Chippindale & P. Taçon (Eds.), The archaeology of rock-art (pp. 73–89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Eastwood, E. B., Blundell, G., & Smith, B. (2010). Art and authorship in Southern African rock art: Examining the Limpopo-Shashe confluence area. In G. Blundell, C. Chippindale, & B. Smith (Eds.), Seeing and knowing: Understanding rock art with and without ethnography (pp. 75–97). Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Eastwood, E. B., & Green, D. (2007). Tsodilo: Some ideas on authorship. The Digging Stick, 24(2), 9–12.Google Scholar
  37. Fischer, A. (1989). Hunting with flint-tipped arrows: Results and experiences from practical experiments. In C. Bonsall (Ed.), The Mesolithic in Europe. Papers presented at the third international symposium, Edinburgh 1985 (pp. 29–39). Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Fischer, A., Hansen, P. V., & Rasmussen, P. (1984). Macro and micro wear traces on lithic projectile points. Experimental results and prehistoric examples. Journal of Danish Archaeology, 3, 19–46.Google Scholar
  39. Fullagar, R., McDonald, J., Field, J., & Donlon, D. (2009). Deadly weapons: Backed microliths from Narrabeen, New South Wales. In M. Haslam, G. Robertson, A. Crowther-Smith, S. Nugent, & L. Kirkwood (Eds.), Archaeological science under a microscope: Studies in residue and ancient DNA analysis in honour of Thomas H. Loy (pp. 258–270). Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gibson, N. E., Wadley, L., & Williamson, B. S. (2004). Microscopic residues as evidence of hafting on backed tools from the 60 000 to 68 000 year-old Howiesons Poort layers of Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa. Southern African Humanities, 16, 1–11.Google Scholar
  41. Hoff, A. (1997). The water snake of the Khoekhoen and /Xam. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 52, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huffman, T. N. (1981). Snakes and birds: Expressive space at Great Zimbabwe. African Studies, 40(2), 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huffman, T. N. (1982). Archaeology and ethnohistory of the African Iron Age. Annual Review of Anthropology, 11, 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huffman, T. N. (2009). A cultural proxy for drought: Ritual burning in the Iron Age of southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36(4), 991–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jacobson-Widding, A. (1992). Pits, pots and snakes—an anthropological approach to ancient African symbols. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 1(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  46. Jordan, P. (2006). Analogy. In C. Conneller & G. Warren (Eds.), Mesolithic Britain and Ireland: New approaches (pp. 83–100). Gloucestershire, England: Tempus.Google Scholar
  47. Jordan, P. (2008). Northern landscapes, northern mind: On the trail of an “archaeology of hunter-gatherer belief.” In D. S. Whitley & K. Hays-Gilpin (Eds.), Belief in the past: Theoretical approaches to the archaeology of religion (pp. 227–246). Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  48. Keitumetse, S. O., Matlapeng, G., & Monamo, L. (2007). Cultural landscapes, communities and world heritage: In pursuit of the local in the Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. In D. Hicks, L. McAtackney, & G. Fairclough (Eds.), Envisioning landscape: Situations and standpoints in archaeology and heritage (pp. 101–119). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  49. Knight, C. (1999). Sex and language as pretend-play. In R. Dunbar, C. Knight, & C. Power (Eds.), The evolution of culture: A historical and scientific overview (pp. 228–247). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Lazuén, T. (2014). Please do not shoot the pianist. Criteria for recognizing ancient lithic weapon use. Journal of Archaeological Science, 46, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liénard, P., & Lawson, E. T. (2008). Evoked culture, ritualization and religious rituals. Religion, 38, 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liénard, P., & Sørensen, J. (2013). Tools for thought: The ritual use of ordinary tools. In A. W. Geertz (Ed.), Origins of religion, cognition and culture (pp. 341–365). Durham: Acumen Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  53. Lombard, M. (2005a). Evidence of hunting and hafting during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A multianalytical approach. Journal of Human Evolution, 48, 279-300.Google Scholar
  54. Lombard, M. (2005b). A method for identifying Stone Age hunting tools. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 60(182), 115-120.Google Scholar
  55. Lombard, M. (2006). Direct evidence for the use of ochre in the hafting technology of Middle Stone Age tools from Sibudu Cave. Southern African Humanities, 18(1), 57–67.Google Scholar
  56. Lombard, M. (2008). Finding resolution for the Howiesons Poort through the microscope: Micro-residue analysis of segments from Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(1), 26–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lombard, M., & Pargeter, J. (2008). Hunting with Howiesons Poort segments: Pilot experimental study and the functional interpretation of archaeological tools. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(9), 2523–2531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lombard, M., & Parsons, I. (2003). Ritual practice in a domestic space: Evidence from Melora Hilltop, a Late Iron Age stone-walled settlement in the Waterberg, Limpopo Province, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 58(178), 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Low, C. (2012). KhoeSan shamanistic relationships with snakes and rain. Journal of Namibian Studies: History Politics Culture, 12, 71–96.Google Scholar
  60. Mallen, L. (2004). Interpretations of Selected Images at Lab X Rock Art Site, Maclear District, North-Eastern Cape, South Africa. Bachelor’s Thesis, University of the Witswatersand.Google Scholar
  61. Marshall, D. A. (2002). Behavior, belonging, and belief: A theory of ritual practice. Sociological Theory, 20(3), 360–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marshall, L. (1962). Kung Bushman religious beliefs. Journal of the International African Institute, 32(3), 221–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McNiven, I. J. (2004). Saltwater people: Spiritscapes, maritime rituals and the archaeology of Australian indigenous seascapes. World Archaeology, 35(3), 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moeyersons, J. (1978). The behaviour of stones and stone implements, buried in consolidating and creeping Kalahari sands. Earth Surface Processes, 3(2), 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Motlotle, N. (1995). Archaeological research at Modipe Hill, Kgatleng District: Oral traditions. Botswana Notes & Records, 27, 57–60.Google Scholar
  66. Murimbika, M. (2006). Sacred powers and rituals of transformation: An ethnoarchaeological study of rainmaking rituals and agricultural productivity during the evolution of the Mapungubwe State, AD 1000 to AD 1300. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  67. Murphy, L. A., Murphy, M. L., Robbins, L. H., & Campbell, A. C. (2001). Pottery from the White Paintings Rock Shelter, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. Nyame Akuma, 55, 2–7.Google Scholar
  68. Murphy, M., Robbins, L., & Campbell, A. (2010). The prehistoric mining of specularite. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 82–93). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  69. Murphy, M. L. (1999). Changing human behaviour: The contribution of the White Paintings Rock Shelter to an understanding of changing lithic reduction, raw material exchange and hunter-gatherer mobility in the interior regions of Southern Africa during the Middle and Early Late Stone Age. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  70. Murphy, M. L., Murphy, L., Campbell, A. C., & Robbins, L. D. (1994). Prehistoric mining of mica schist at the Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 87-92.Google Scholar
  71. Nash, D. J., Coulson, S., Staurset, S., Ullyott, J. S., Babutsi, M., Hopkinson, L., & Smith, M. P. (2013). Provenancing of silcrete raw materials indicates long-distance transport to Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, during the Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution, 64(4), 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nettleton, A. (1989). The crocodile does not leave the pool: Venda court arts. In A. Nettleton & D. W. Hammond-Tooke (Eds.) African art in Southern Africa: From traditional to township (pp. 67-83). The University of Michigan: Ad. Donker.Google Scholar
  73. Odell, G. H., & Cowan, F. (1986). Experiments with spears and arrows on animal targets. Journal of Field Archaeology, 13(2), 195–212.Google Scholar
  74. Ouzman, S. (1995). Spiritual and political uses of a rock engraving site and its imagery by San and Tswana-speakers. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 50(161), 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pargeter, J. (2007). Howiesons Poort segments as hunting weapons: Experiments with replicated projectiles. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 62(186), 147–153.Google Scholar
  76. Pargeter, J. (2011). Assessing the macrofracture method for identifying Stone Age hunting weaponry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(11), 2882–2888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rappaport, R. A. (1979). Ecology, meaning and religion. Richmond, California: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  78. Rappaport, R. A. (1999). Ritual and religion in the making of humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reid, A., Sadr, K., & Hanson-James, N. (1998). Herding traditions. In P. Lane, A. Reid, & A. Segobye (Eds.), Ditswa Mmung. The archaeology of Botswana (pp. 81–100). Gaborone: The Botswana Society and Pula Press.Google Scholar
  80. Robbins, L. H. (1987). The Depression Site, Tsodilo Hills, northwest Botswana. Nyame Akuma, 29, 2.Google Scholar
  81. Robbins, L. H. (1990a). The Depression Site: A Stone Age sequence in the Northwest Kalahari Desert, Botswana. National Geographic Research, 6(3), 329-338.Google Scholar
  82. Robbins, L. H. (1990b). Excavations at the White Paintings Rock-Shelter, Tsodilo Hills. Nyame Akuma, 34, 2-4.Google Scholar
  83. Robbins, L. H., Brook, G. A., Murphy, M. L., Campbell, A. C., Melear, N., Downey, W. S. (2000a). Late Quaternary archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from sediments at Rhino Cave, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. Southern African Field Archaeology, 9, 17-31.Google Scholar
  84. Robbins, L. H., & Campbell, A. C. (1988). The Depression Rock Shelter Site, Tsodilo Hills. Botswana Notes & Records, 20, 1–3.Google Scholar
  85. Robbins, L. H., Campbell, A. C., Brook, G. A., & Murphy, M. L. (2007). World’s oldest ritual site? The “Python Cave” at Tsodilo Hills World Heritage Site, Botswana. Nyame Akuma, 67, 2–6.Google Scholar
  86. Robbins, L. H., Campbell, A. C., Murphy, M. L., & Ferone, T. (1993). Prehistoric mining and new discoveries of rock art at the Tsodilo Hills. Nyame Akuma, 40, 2–5.Google Scholar
  87. Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M., & Campbell, A. (2010). Windows in the past: Excavating Stone Age shelters. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 50–64). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  88. Robbins, L. H., & Murphy, M. L. (2011). An overview of the Later and Middle Stone Age at Tsodilo Hills. Botswana Notes & Records, 43, 130–139.Google Scholar
  89. Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M. L., Brook, G. A., Ivester, A. H., Campbell, A. C., Klein, R. G., Milo, R. G., Stewart, K. M., Downey, W. S., Stevens, N. J. (2000b). Archaeology, palaeoenvironment, and chronology of the Tsodilo Hills, White Paintings Rock Shelter, Northwest Kalahari Desert, Botswana. Journal of Archaeological Science, 27(11), 1085-1113.Google Scholar
  90. Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M. L., Campbell, A. C., & Brook, G. A. (1996). Excavations at the Tsodilo Hills Rhino Cave. Botswana Notes & Records, 28, 23–45.Google Scholar
  91. Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M. L., Campbell, A. C., & Brook, G. A. (1998). Intensive mining of specular hematite in the Kalahari ca. A.D. 800-1000. Current Anthropology, 39(1), 144–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Robbins, L. H., Murphy, M. L., Stewart, K. M., Campbell, A. C., & Brook, G. A. (1994). Barbed bone points, paleoenvironment, and the antiquity of fish exploitation in the Kalahari Desert, Botswana. Journal of Field Archaeology, 21(2), 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rots, V., & Plisson, H. (2014). Projectiles and the abuse of the use-wear method in a search for impact. Journal of Archaeological Science, 48, 154–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rudner, I. (1965). Archaeological report on the Tsodilo Hills, Bechuanaland. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 20(78), 51–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rudner, J., & Rudner, I. (1968). Rock-art in the Thirstland areas. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 23(91), 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sadr, K. (2008). An ageless view of first millennium AD southern African ceramics. Journal of African Archaeology, 6(1), 103–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sano, K., & Oba, M. (2015). Backed point experiments for identifying mechanically-delivered armatures. Journal of Archaeological Science, 63, 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schmidt, S. (1979). The rain bull of the South African Bushmen. African Studies, 38(2), 201–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schmidt, S. (1998). Mythical snakes in Namibia, Proceedings of the Khoisan Identities and Cultural Heritage Conference (pp. 1-15). Cape Town.Google Scholar
  100. Schoeman, M. H. (2006). Clouding power? Rain-control, space, landscapes and ideology in Shashe-Limpopo state formation. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand.Google Scholar
  101. Segadika, P. (2006). Managing intangible heritage at Tsodilo. Museum International, 58(1-2), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shea, J., Davis, Z., & Brown, K. (2001). Experimental tests of Middle Palaeolithic spear points using a calibrated crossbow. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28, 807–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, B. W., & Ouzman, S. (2004). Taking stock. Identifying Khoekhoen herder rock art in Southern Africa. Current Anthropology, 45(4), 499–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Soriano, S., Villa, P., Delagnes, A., Degano, I., Pollarolo, L., Lucejko, J. J., Henshilwood, C., & Wadley, L. (2015). The Still Bay and Howiesons Poort at Sibudu and Blombos: Understanding Middle Stone Age technologies. PLoS ONE, 10(7), 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sperber, D. (1975). Rethinking symbolism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Staurset, S. (2014). Lithic technology and prehistoric behaviour patterns in the Middle Stone Age of Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  107. Staurset, S., & Coulson, S. (2014). Sub-surface movement of stone artefacts at White Paintings Shelter, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana: Implications for the Middle Stone Age chronology of central southern Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 75, 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sullivan, S., & Low, C. (2014). Shades of the rainbow serpent? A KhoeSan animal between myth and landscape in Southern Africa—Ethnographic contextualisations of rock art representations. Arts, 3(2), 215–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Thomas, D. S. G., Brook, G., Shaw, P., Bateman, M., Haberyan, K., Appleton, C., Nash, D., McLaren, S., & Davies, F. (2003). Late Pleistocene wetting and drying in the NW Kalahari: An integrated study from the Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. Quaternary International, 104, 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Towner, R. H., & Warburton, M. (1990). Projectile point rejuvenation: A technological analysis. Journal of Field Archaeology, 17(3), 311–321.Google Scholar
  111. Van der Ryst, M., Lombard, M., & Biemond, W. (2004). Rocks of potency: Engravings and cupules from the Dovedale Ward, Southern Tuli Block, Botswana. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 59(179), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Villa, P. (1982). Conjoinable pieces and site formation processes. American Antiquity, 47(2), 276–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Villa, P., Boscato, P., Ranaldo, F., & Ronchitelli, A. (2009). Stone tools for the hunt: Points with impact scars from a Middle Paleolithic site in southern Italy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 850–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Walker, N. (1995). The archaeology of the San: The Late Stone Age of Botswana. In A. J. G. M. Sanders (Ed.), Speaking for the Bushman (pp. 54–87). Gaborone: The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  115. Walker, N. (1997). In the footsteps of the ancestors: The Matsieng creation site in Botswana. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 52(166), 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Walker, N. (1998). Botswana’s prehistoric rock art. In P. Lane, A. Reid, & A. Segobye (Eds.), Ditswa Mmung. The archaeology of Botswana (pp. 206–232). Gaborone: The Botswana Society and Pula Press.Google Scholar
  117. Walker, N. (2008). Through the crystal ball: Making sense of spheroids in the Middle Stone Age. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 63(187), 12–17.Google Scholar
  118. Walker, N. (2010). Cups and saucers: A preliminary investigation of the rock carvings of Tsodilo, Botswana. In G. Blundell, C. Chippindale, & B. Smith (Eds.), Seeing and knowing: Understanding rock art with and without ethnography (pp. 55–72). Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Whitley, D. S. (2001). Science and the sacred: Interpretive theory in U.S. rock art research. In K. Helskog (Ed.), Theoretical perspectives in rock art research (pp. 124–151). Oslo: Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.Google Scholar
  120. Whitley, D. S., Dorn, R. I., Simon, J. M., Rechtman, R., & Whitley, T. K. (1999). Sally’s rockshelter and the archaeology of the vision quest. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 9(2), 221–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wilmsen, E. N. (1986). Of paintings and painters, in terms of Zu/'Hoasi interpretations. In R. Vossen & K. Keuthmann (Eds.), Contemporary studies on Khoisan in honour of Oswin Köhler on the occasion of his 75th birthday (Vol. 2, pp. 347–372). Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.Google Scholar
  122. Wilmsen, E. N. (2014). Myths, gender, birds, beads: A reading of Iron Age hill sites in interior Southern Africa. Africa, 84(03), 398–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilmsen, E. N., & Denbow, J. R. (2010). Early villages at Tsodilo: The introduction of livestock, crops and metalworking. In A. Campbell, L. Robbins, & M. Taylor (Eds.), Tsodilo Hills. Copper bracelet of the Kalahari (pp. 72–82). East Lansing and Gaborone: Michigan State University Press and The Botswana Society.Google Scholar
  124. Wilmsen, E. N., Killick, D., Rosenstein, D. D., Thebe, P. C., & Denbow, J. R. (2009). The social geography of pottery in Botswana as reconstructed by optical petrography. Journal of African Archaeology, 7(1), 3–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yaroshevich, A., Kaufman, D., Nuzhnyy, D., Bar-Yosef, O., & Weinstein-Evron, M. (2010). Design and performance of microlith implemented projectiles during the Middle and the Late Epipaleolithic of the Levant: Experimental and archaeological evidence. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(2), 368–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Archaeology, Conservation and HistoryUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of National Museum and MonumentsGaboroneBotswana
  3. 3.Mossel BaySouth Africa

Personalised recommendations