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African Archaeological Review

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 267–299 | Cite as

Forging Ahead By Land and By Sea: Archaeology and Paleoclimate Reconstruction in Madagascar

  • Kristina Douglass
  • Jens Zinke
Original Article

Abstract

Madagascar is an exceptional example of island biogeography. Though a large island, Madagascar’s landmass is small relative to other places in the world with comparable levels of biodiversity, endemicity, and topographic and climatic variation. Moreover, the timing of Madagascar’s human colonization and the social-ecological trajectories that followed human arrival make the island a unique case study for understanding the dynamic relationship between humans, environment, and climate. These changes are most famously illustrated by the mass extinction of the island’s megafauna but also include a range of other developments. Given the chronological confluence of human arrival and dramatic transformations of island ecologies, one of the most important overarching questions for research on Madagascar is how best to understand the interconnections between human communities, the environment, and climate. In this review paper, we contribute to the well-established discussion of this complex question by highlighting the potential for new multidisciplinary research collaborations in the southwest part of the island. Specifically, we promote the comparison of paleoclimate indicators from securely dated archaeological and paleontological contexts with Western Indian Ocean climate records, as a productive way to improve the overall resolution of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the island. Given new archaeological findings that more than double the length of Madagascar’s human occupation, models of environmental transformation post-human arrival must be reassessed and allow for the possibility of slower and more varied rates of change. Improving the spatial and temporal resolution of paleoclimate reconstruction is critical in distinguishing anthropogenic and climate drivers of environmental change. It will also increase our capacity to leverage archaeological and paleoclimate research toward resolving modern challenges, such as environmental conservation and poverty alleviation.

Keywords

Madagascar Archaeology Paleoclimate Island colonization Isotopes Corals Ratite eggshell 

Résumé

Madagascar représente un cas exceptionnel de biogéographie insulaire. Bien que ce soit une très grande île, la superficie de Madagascar est relativement petite quand on la compare à d’autres régions ayant des taux similaires de biodiversité et d’endémicité, et témoignant d’une telle diversité topographique et climatique. Par ailleurs, la période pendant laquelle s’est opérée la colonisation humaine de Madagascar, ainsi que les développements socio-écologiques qui se sont ensuivis font de cette île un objet d’étude idéal pour comprendre les dynamiques de la relation entre les humains, l’environnement et le climat. Ces changements sont notoirement illustrés par la disparition totale de la mégafaune de l’île, mais d’autres évolutions importantes sont également à souligner. Etant donné la convergence chronologique de l’arrivée de l’Homme et des transformations radicales de l’écologie de l’île, une des questions centrales de la recherche sur Madagascar vise la compréhension de la nature de l’interaction entre les communautés humaines, l’environnement et le climat. Dans cet article, nous contribuons à la discussion déjà éprouvée de cette question difficile en dévoilant de nouvelles opportunités de collaborations multidisciplinaires, notamment dans la région sud-ouest de Madagascar. Nous proposons en particulier d’utiliser la comparaison de données paléoclimatiques provenant de sites archéologiques et paléontologiques ayant une chronologie établie avec les archives climatiques de l’océan Indien comme un moyen efficace d’améliorer la résolution des reconstructions paléoclimatiques et paléoenvironnementales de l’île. Considérant les dernières datations archéologiques qui doubleraient la durée de l’occupation humaine de Madagascar, nous nous devons de réexaminer les théories de transformation environnementale causée par l’arrivée de l’Homme et d’envisager la possibilité de changements qui se seraient opérés plus lentement et de diverses manières. L’amélioration de la résolution spatiale et temporelle des reconstructions paléoclimatiques à Madagascar est essentielle pour permettre de faire la différence entre les facteurs anthropiques et les facteurs climatiques, quant à leur rôle comme source de transformations environnementales de l’île. Cela nous permettra également de nous appuyer sur le savoir archéologique et paléoclimatique afin de répondre aux grands défis de nos jours, tels que la conservation de l’environnement et la lutte contre la pauvreté.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The archaeological investigations carried out in the region of Andavadoaka were made possible with funding from the US National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, the P.E.O. Scholar Award, the Yale Institute of Biospheric Studies, the Yale MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, and the Yale Council on Archaeological Studies. Research permissions were granted by the Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique, Autorisation Numéro 128/13-MESupReS/SG/DGRP, by the Centre de Documentation et de Recherche sur l’Art et les Traditions Orales Malgaches (CEDRATOM), under the auspices of the Memorandum of Understanding between the University of Toliara, under the direction of Dr. Barthélémy Manjakahery, Director of the CEDRATOM, and Yale University, under the direction of Dr. Roderick McIntosh, Professor of Anthropology. Local permission to carry out archaeological research was granted by the Office du Maire, Commune de Befandefa and by the Chefs de Fokontany of Andavadoaka, Nosy Ve, Antsaragnagnangy, Lamboharana, Ampasilava, and Salary. Permits for the export of archaeological materials for the purposes of laboratory analysis were granted by the Secretariat Général of the Ministère de l’Artisanat de la Culture et des Patrimoines, Direction Régionale de la Culture et du Patrimoine Atsimo Andrefana, Visas de Sorties Numéro 09/06-MCP/SG/DRCP.AA; Numéro 05/14-MACP/SG/DRCP.AA; Numéro 08/14-MACP/SG/DRCP.AA in accordance with Avis Numéro 375, 02/02/1978. Special thanks go to Mr. Noel Robinson, Maire Fostin Venince Radrianasolo of Befandefa, 2ème Adjoint au Maire Adolphe Ediedy, Président Eugène Radafinely of Andavadoaka, Président Lamely Sony of Nosy Ve, Président Ziriele of Antsaragnagnangy, Président Joseph Rabesolo of Lambohara, Président Venance of Ampasilava, Président Jean-Armand Havandrainy of Salary, Président Roger Samba of the Velondriake Association, Conseiller Fostin Maharesy, Mr. Archant Zanista, Mr. George Manahira, Mrs. Felicia Fenomanana, the Morombe Archaeological Project Team, the communities of Velondriake and Blue Ventures, Dr. Chantal Radimilahy, Dr. Henry Wright, and the late Dr. Robert Dewar.

The coral paleoclimate work was supported as part of the SINDOCOM grant under the Dutch NWO program ‘Climate Variability’, grant 854.00034/035. Additional support comes from the NWO ALW project CLIMATCH, grant 820.01.009, and the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association through the Marine Science for Management program under grant MASMA/CC/2010/02. We thank the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Madagasacar, especially Bemahafaly Randriamantsoa and the WCS/ANGAP team in Maroantsetra, for their support in fieldwork logistics and in the organization of the research permits. We would also like to thank CAF/CORE Madagascar for granting the CITES permit and ANGAP Madagascar for support of our research activities in the vicinity of the marine and forest nature parks. JZ was also supported by an Indian Ocean Marine Research Center fellowship co-funded by UWA, AIMS and CSIRO in Western Australia.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environment and AgricultureCurtin UniversityBentleyAustralia

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