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African Archaeological Review

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 1–34 | Cite as

Coercion and Warfare in the Rise of State Societies in Southern Zambezia

  • Nam C. Kim
  • Chapurukha M. KusimbaEmail author
  • Lawrence H. Keeley
Original Article

Abstract

Researchers have raised a wide range of variables to account for the emergence and governance of complex polities. Warfare and investment in military power, along with an expansionist ideology, are often raised as catalysts for the emergence of state societies and hierarchical forms of leadership. In southern Africa’s Zambezian region, complex polities arose during the Later Iron Age, presently dated to the early second millennium CE. Wealth accumulation in the form of arable land for grazing cattle, as well as the development of a highly regulated elite ideology coupled with favorable climatic conditions, factored into this trajectory of sociopolitical development. This paper explores the role coercion may have played in cultural changes associated with increased political complexity in Zambezia. Coercive and persuasive leadership is often challenging to recognize archaeologically. Do we have sufficient visible datasets to support coercive power and conflict as a dominant factor for cultural change in this region? Was conflict a significant driver of change in the prehistoric Shashi-Limpopo Basin? How does the evidence stand up to scrutiny when evaluated against known archaeological signatures for warfare?

Keywords

Coercion Fortification Great Zimbabwe Culture Mapungubwe Political centralization Warfare Zambezia 

Résumé

Un nombre important de variables ont été mises en avant pour rendre compte de l’émergence des sociétés complexes et de leur gouvernance. Dans la région Zambézienne d’Afrique du sud, ces sociétés complexes sont apparues durant l’âge du fer tardif, au début du 2nd millénaire de notre ère. L’accumulation de richesses sous forme de terres arables pour la pâture du bétail, le développement d’une idéologie élitiste hautement régulée et des conditions climatiques favorables sont des facteurs importants qui influencent la trajectoire du développent sociopolitique de ces sociétés. Cet article explore le rôle que la coercition a pu jouer dans les changements culturels associés à l’augmentation de la complexité politique. Les conflits et l’investissement dans la force militaire, en même temps qu’une idéologie expansionniste, sont souvent présentés comme des catalyseurs de l’émergence de sociétés-états d’une part et de formes hiérarchisées de gouvernement d’autre part. Ce type de gouvernement est souvent coercitif et persuasif mais difficile à reconnaitre sur le plan archéologique. Avons-nous assez de données visibles pour prouver l’existence et le rôle dans les changements culturels de cette région d’un pouvoir coercitif. Les conflits ont-ils eu une influence notable sur les changements qui se sont produits dans le Bassin Shashi-Limpopo à l’époque préhistorique? Les preuves disponibles dans cette région sont-elles comparables aux éléments qui forment habituellement la signature archéologique d’un conflit.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to a number of colleagues who have generously shared their time and insights with us in completing this paper, including Innocent Pikirayi, John Calabrese, and Sibel Kusimba. We also thank our anonymous reviewers for their extremely insightful and beneficial comments, which served to strengthen the manuscript. Finally, we wish to thank the editorial staff of the journal for their consideration and efforts. All errors within the paper belong to the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nam C. Kim
    • 1
  • Chapurukha M. Kusimba
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lawrence H. Keeley
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyAmerican UniversityWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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