Advertisement

African Archaeological Review

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 513–541 | Cite as

Landscapes of State Formation: Geospatial Analysis of Aksumite Settlement Patterns (Ethiopia)

  • Michael J. Harrower
  • A. Catherine D’Andrea
Original Article

Abstract

Landscape-scale dynamics of the Kingdom of Aksum and its territories are exceptionally well-suited to help refine understanding of ancient complex polities in Africa and beyond. Archaeological explanations of ancient state formation have long centered on a small number of so-called primary cases that are thought to have inspired the rise of descendant, secondary states. Yet the rise of Aksum shows both local and multiregional influences which contradict diffusion and independent-origination focused explanations. Over four summer field-seasons (2005–2008), the Eastern Tigrai Archaeological Project (ETAP) targeted a 196-km2 inland area between Aksum and the Red Sea recording 137 sites, including 7 ancient towns larger than 6 ha. We report results of spatial analysis of site sizes, site clustering, trade routes, and spatial associations of sites with landforms and hydrology. Least-cost path GIS analysis of trade routes from Adulis to Aksum is broadly consistent with the reports of the Periplus Maris Erythraei, yet many travelers may have opted for a more circuitous highland itinerary rather than a direct least-cost route. Rank-size analysis reveals no conclusive evidence of site-size hierarchies suggesting, at least in this area, complex polities may not be characterized by clear categories of different size settlements. Ripley’s K multiscalar cluster analysis shows a spatial distribution of sites lacking pronounced clustering/dispersion, indicating that settlement locations were not determined predominantly by the proximity of neighbors. Finally, satellite imagery modeling shows statistically significant associations between settlements, landforms, and water-rich areas most amenable to high-productivity agriculture, showing environmental conditions played a pivotal role in shaping landscape-scale site patterning.

Keywords

Aksum Ethiopia Eritrea Settlement Patterns Ancient States Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 

Résumé

Les dynamiques à l’échelle du paysage du Royaume d’Aksoum et de ses territoires sont particulièrement bien adaptées pour aider à affiner la compréhension des systèmes politiques complexes anciens en Afrique et au-delà. Les explications archéologiques de la formation des états complexes ont longtemps été centrées sur un petit nombre de prétendus cas primaires que l’on a pensé avoir inspiré l’émergence des états secondaires qui en découlent. Ici, le cas d’Aksoum montre des influences à la fois locales et multirégionales qui contredisent des explications basées sur une diffusion ou une origine indépendante. Au cours de quatre saisons d’été de terrain (2005-2008), le Eastern Tigrai Archaeological Project (ETAP) a ciblé une zone de l’intérieur des terres de 196 km² entre Aksoum et la mer Rouge, enregistrant 137 sites, dont sept villes anciennes couvrant 6 hectares et plus. Nous reportons les résultats de l’analyse spatiale des tailles des sites, des agglomérations de sites, des routes commerciales et des associations spatiales des sites avec les formes de paysages et l’hydrologie. L’analyse SIG des chemins de moindre coût (least-cost path) des routes commerciales depuis Adulis jusqu’à Aksoum est généralement cohérente avec les données du Periplus Maris Erythraei, même si de nombreux voyageurs ont pu opter pour un itinéraire dans les hautes terres plus sinueux plutôt qu’un chemin direct à moindre coût. L’analyse rang-taille ne révèle pas de preuve concluante des hierarchies site-taille suggérant, au moins dans cette zone, que les systèmes politiques complexes ne pourraient pas être caractérisés par des catégories évidentes liées aux différentes tailles des implantations. L’analyse des amas multiscalaires K de Ripley montre une répartition spatiale des sites qui manqué d’un rapport agrégation/répartition prononcé, indiquant que les endroits des lieux d’implantation n’étaient pas déterminés de manière prédominante par la proximité de voisins. Finalement, les modèles d’imageries satellitaires montrent des associations statistiquement significatives entre les implantations, la nature despaysages et les zones riches en eau les plus à même de développer une agriculture à haute productivité, montrant que les conditions environnementales ont joué un role primordial dans la mise en place d’un système de sites à l’échelle du paysage.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Archaeological surveys conducted by the Eastern Tigrai Archaeological Project (ETAP) in Gulo-Makeda were supported by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Standard Research Grants #410-2002-0846 and 410-2007-2472. We are grateful to the many ETAP team members who enthusiastically participated in our surveys, including Dr. Laurence Pavlish, Dr. Stephen Batiuk, Dr. Graham Wilson, Dr. Alicia Hawkins, Shannon Wood, Habtamu Mekonnen, Tsegu Hadgu, Michael Sowbeka, Abraha Bahta, Hagos Hailat, Tom Butler, Bereket Gabre-Tsadik, Girmai Kassaye, Hagos Guesh, Daniel Tsegu, Sonja Aaegesen, Michael Atsbeha, and Berhe Gabregsabier. ETAP survey ceramic analysis was completed by Dr. Andrea Manzo and Dr. Luisa Sernicola, while survey lithic remains were examined by Dr. Laurel Phillipson. We are grateful for the long-term support of Kebede Amare (Tigrai Agency for Tourism), Dr. Mitiku Haile (Mekelle University), the Eastern Tigrai Zonal Administration, and Jara Hailemariam and Dr. Yonas Beyene (both of the Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage). This research would not have been possible without the kind support of Gulo-Makeda woreda and the many tabia and village leaders we encountered in our surveys. To them we offer our heartfelt thanks.

References

  1. Adams, R. M. (1965). Land behind Baghdad: A history of settlement on the Diyala Plains. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Alcock, S., & Rempel, J. E. (2006). The more unusual dots on the map: "Special-purpose" sites and the texture of landscape. In P. G. Bilde & V. F. Stolba (Eds.), Surveying the Greek Chora: The Black Sea region in a comparative perspective (pp. 27–46). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Anfray, F. (1967). Matara. Annales d’Ethiopie, 7, 33–88.Google Scholar
  4. Anfray, F. (1968). Aspects de l’archéologie Ethiopienne. The Journal of African History, 9(3), 345–366.Google Scholar
  5. Anfray, F. (1973). Nouveau sites antiques. Journal of Ethiopian Studies, 11(2), 13–27.Google Scholar
  6. Anfray, F. (1990). Les anciens Ethiopiens: Siècles d’historie. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  7. Avanzini, A. (2008). Notes for a history of Sumhuram and a new inscription of Yashhur’il. In A. Avanzini (Ed.), A port in Arabia between Rome and the Indian Ocean (3rd c. BC – 5th c. AD) (pp. 609–641). Rome: L’Erma di Retschneider.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, T. C., & Gatrell, A. C. (1995). Interactive spatial data analysis. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  9. Banning, E. B. (2002). Archaeological survey. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  10. Bard, K. A., & Fattovich, R. (2007). Harbor of the pharaohs to the land of Punt: Archaeological investigations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis, Egypt 2001–2005. Naples: Universita L’Orientale.Google Scholar
  11. Bard, K. A., Coltorti, M., Di Blasi, M. C., Dramis, F., & Fattovich, R. (2000). The environmental history of Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) in the Middle and Late Holocene: A preliminary outline. African Archaeological Review, 17(2), 65–86.Google Scholar
  12. Beeston, A. F. (1972). Kingship in ancient South Arabia. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 15, 256–268.Google Scholar
  13. Bent, J. T. (1893). The ancient trade route across Ethiopia. The Geographical Journal, 2, 140–146.Google Scholar
  14. Bernand, E., Drewes, A., & Schneider, R. (1991). Recueil des inscriptions de l’Ethiopie de périodes pré-Axoumite et Axoumite. Paris: Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.Google Scholar
  15. Bevan, A., & Conolly, J. (2006). Multiscalar approaches to settlement pattern analysis. In G. R. Lock & B. L. Molyneaux (Eds.), Confronting scale in archaeology: Issues of theory and practice (pp. 217–234). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Branting, S. (2012). Seven solutions for seven problems with least cost pathways. In D. A. White & S. L. Surface-Evans (Eds.), Least cost analysis of social landscapes: Archaeological case studies (pp. 209–224). Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brunner, U. (2002). Water management and settlements in ancient Eritrea. In W. Raunig & S. Wenig (Eds.), Afrikas Horn: Akten der Ersten Internationalen Littmann-Konferenz (pp. 30–44). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Buffa, V., & Vogt, B. (1999). Sabir–Cultural identity between Saba and Africa. In C. Metzner-Nebelsick (Ed.), Migration and kulturtransfer (pp. 437–450). Berlin: Deutsches Archaologisches Institut.Google Scholar
  19. Butzer, K. (1981). Rise and fall of Axum, Ethiopia: A geo-archaeological interpretation. American Antiquity, 46, 471–495.Google Scholar
  20. Casson, L. (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with introduction, translation, and commentary. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Chaplot, V. C. W., & Curmi, P. (2000). Improving soil hydromorphy prediction according to DEM resolution and available pedological data. Geoderma, 97, 405–422.Google Scholar
  22. Chapman, R. (2003). Archaeologies of complexity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, D. L. (1977). Spatial archaeology. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, A. (1971). Cultural strategies in the organization of trading diasporas. In C. Meillassoux (Ed.), The development of indigenous trade and markets in West Africa (pp. 266–281). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Comer, D. C., & Harrower, M. J. (Eds.). (2013). Mapping archaeological landscapes from space. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Connah, G. (2006). African civilizations: An archaeological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Conolly, J., & Lake, M. (2006). Geographic information systems in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Conti Rossini, C. (1928). Storia d’Etiopia. Bergamo: Istituto Italiano d’Arti Grafiche.Google Scholar
  29. Crumley, C. L. (1995). Heterarchy and the analysis of complex societies. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 6, 1–5.Google Scholar
  30. Curtis, M. C. (2004). Ancient interaction across the southern Red Sea: New suggestions for investigating cultural exchange and complex societies during the first millennium BC. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project I (pp. 57–70). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  31. Curtis, M. C. (2008). New perspectives for examining change and complexity in the Northern Horn of Africa during the first millennium BCE. In P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, & Z. Teka (Eds.), The archaeology of ancient Eritrea (pp. 329–348). Trenton: Red Sea Press.Google Scholar
  32. Curtis, M. C. (2009). Relating the ancient Ona culture to the wider northern Horn: Discerning patterns and problems in the archaeology of the first millennium BC. African Archaeological Review, 26(4), 327–350.Google Scholar
  33. Curtis, M. C., & Schmidt, P. R. (2008). Landscape, people, and places on the ancient Asmara Plateau. In P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, & Z. Teka (Eds.), The archaeology of ancient Eritrea (pp. 65–108). Trenton: Red Sea Press.Google Scholar
  34. D’Andrea, A. C., Manzo, A., Harrower, M., & Hawkins, A. (2008). The pre-Aksumite and Aksumite settlement of northeastern Tigrai, Ethiopia. Journal of Field Archaeology, 33(2), 151–176.Google Scholar
  35. D’Andrea, A. C., Richards, M. P., Pavlish, L. A., Wood, S., Manzo, A., & Wolde-Kiros, H. S. (2011). Stable isotopic analysis of human and animal diets from two pre-Aksumite/Proto-Aksumite archaeological sites in northern Ethiopia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 367–374.Google Scholar
  36. de Contenson, H. (1981). Pre-Aksumite culture. In G. Mokhtar (Ed.), General history of Africa (Vol. 2, pp. 341–361). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  37. Di Blasi, M. C. (2005). Foreword. In J. W. Michels (Ed.), Changing settlement patterns in the Aksum-Yeha region of Ethiopia: 700 BC–AD 850 (pp. ix–xvii). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  38. Drennan, R. D., & Peterson, C. E. (2004). Comparing archaeological settlement systems with rank-size graphs: A measure of shape and statistical confidence. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 533–549.Google Scholar
  39. Drewes, A. J. (1962). Inscriptions de L’Ethiopie antique. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  40. Drewes, A. J. (2001). The meaning of Sabaean MKRB, facts and fiction. Semitica, 51, 93–125.Google Scholar
  41. ERDAS. (2013). ERDAS field guide. Atlanta, GA: ERDAS Inc.Google Scholar
  42. Falconer, S. E., & Redman, C. L. (2009). Polities and power: Archaeological perspectives on the landscapes of early states. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  43. Falconer, S. E., & Savage, S. (1995). Heartlands and hinterlands: Alternative trajectories of early urbanization in Mesopotamia and the southern Levant. American Antiquity, 60, 37–58.Google Scholar
  44. Fattovich, R. (1978). Traces of a possible African component in the Pre-Aksumite culture of Northern Ethiopia. Abbay, 9, 25–30.Google Scholar
  45. Fattovich, R. (1988). Remarks on the Late Prehistory and Early History of Northern Ethiopia. In T. Beyene (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ethiopian Studies, 1984 (pp. 85–104). Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies.Google Scholar
  46. Fattovich, R. (1990). Remarks on the Pre-Aksumite period in northern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethiopian Studies, 23, 1–33.Google Scholar
  47. Fattovich, R. (1997). The contacts between Southern Arabia and the Horn in Late Prehistoric and Early Historic times: A view from Africa. In A. Avanzini (Ed.), Profumi d’Arabia (pp. 273–286). Roma: Università di Roma.Google Scholar
  48. Fattovich, R. (2004). The Pre-Aksumite state in Northern Ethiopia and Eritrea reconsidered. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region (pp. 71–78). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  49. Fattovich, R. (2008). Kings and farmers: The urban development of Aksum, Ethiopia: Ca. 500 BC–AD 1500 program for the study of the African environment (PSAE), Research Series 4. Boston: Boston University.Google Scholar
  50. Fattovich, R. (2009). Reconsidering Yeha, c. 800–400 BC. African Archaeological Review, 26, 275–290.Google Scholar
  51. Fattovich, R. (2010). The development of ancient states in the Northern Horn of Africa, c. 3000 BC - AD 1000: An archaeological outline. Journal of World Prehistory, 23, 145–175.Google Scholar
  52. Fattovich, R. (2012a). The northern Horn of Africa in the first millennium BCE: Local traditions and external connections. Rassegna di Studi Etiopici, 4, 1–60.Google Scholar
  53. Fattovich, R. (2012b). The southern Red Sea in the 3rd and 2nd Millennia BC: An archaeological overview. In D. A. Agius, J. P. Cooper, A. Trakadas, & C. Zazzaro (Eds.), Navigated spaces, connected places: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project V (pp. 39–46). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  54. Fattovich, R., & Bard, K. A. (2001). The Proto-Aksumite period: An overview. Annales d'Ethiopie, 17, 3–24.Google Scholar
  55. Fattovich, R., Bard, K. A., Petrassi, L., & Pisano, V. (Eds.). (2000). The Aksum archaeological area: A preliminary assessment. Naples: Istituto Universitario Orientale.Google Scholar
  56. Finneran, N. J. (2005). The archaeological landscape of the Shire region, Western Tigray, Ethiopia. Annales d’Ethiopie, 21, 7–29.Google Scholar
  57. Finneran, N. J. (2007). The archaeology of Ethiopia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Flannery, K. (1998). The ground plans of archaic states. In G. M. Feinman & J. Marcus (Eds.), Archaic states (pp. 15–58). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  59. Flannery, K., & Marcus, J. (2012). The creation of inequality: How our prehistoric ancestors set the stage for monarchy, slavery, and empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Fleischer, R., & Schulz, R. (2012). Figurale bronzen agyptischer und griechisch-romischer art vom Jabal al-’Awd, Jemen. ABADY, 13, 1–82.Google Scholar
  61. French, C., Sulas, F., & Madella, M. (2009). New geoarchaeological investigations of the valley systems in the Aksum area of Northern Ethiopia. Catena, 78, 218–233.Google Scholar
  62. Gerlach, I. (2012). Yeha: An Ethio-Sabaean site in the highlands of Tigray (Ethiopia). In A. Sedov (Ed.), New research in archaeology and epigraphy of South Arabia and its neighbors (pp. 215–240). Moscow: Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation.Google Scholar
  63. Gessler, P. E., Moore, I. D., McKenzie, N. J., & Ryan, P. J. (1995). Soil-landscape modelling and spatial prediction of soil attributes. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 9(4), 421–432.Google Scholar
  64. Gillings, M. (2012). Landscape phenomenology, GIS and the role of affordance. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 19, 601–611.Google Scholar
  65. Harrower, M. J. (2010). Geographic information systems (GIS) hydrological modeling in archaeology: An example from the origins of irrigation in Yemen. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37, 1447–1452.Google Scholar
  66. Harrower, M. J. (2013). Methods, concepts and challenges in archaeological site detection and modeling. In D. C. Comer & M. J. Harrower (Eds.), Mapping archaeological landscapes from space (pp. 213–218). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  67. Harrower, M., McCorriston, J., & D’Andrea, A. C. (2010). General/specific, local/global: Comparing the beginnings of agriculture in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia/Eritrea) and Southwest Arabia (Yemen). American Antiquity, 75, 452–472.Google Scholar
  68. Hatke, G. (2011). Holy land and sacred history: A view from early Ethiopia. In W. Pohl, C. Gantner, & R. Payne (Eds.), Visions of community in the post-Roman world: The West, Byzantium and the Islamic world 300–1100 (pp. 259–275). Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  69. Hodder, I., & Orton, C. (1976). Spatial analysis in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Japp, S., Gerlach, I., Hitgen, H., & Schnelle, M. (2011). Yeha and Hawelti: Cultural contacts between Saba and D’MT—new research by the German Archaeological Institute in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 41, 1–16.Google Scholar
  71. Jennings, J. (2011). Globalizations and the ancient world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Johnson, G. A. (1972). A test of the utility of central place theory in archaeology. In P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham, & G. W. Dimbleby (Eds.), Man, settlement, and urbanism (pp. 769–785). London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  73. Johnson, G. A. (1977). Aspects of regional analysis in archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 6, 479–508.Google Scholar
  74. Johnson, G. A. (1980). Rank-size convexity and systems integration: A view from archaeology. Economic Geography, 56, 234–247.Google Scholar
  75. Johnson, M. H. (2012). Phenomenological approaches in landscape archaeology. Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 41, 269–284.Google Scholar
  76. Kantner, J. (2008). The archaeology of regions: From discrete analytical toolkit to ubiquitous spatial perspective. Journal of Archaeological Research, 16, 37–81.Google Scholar
  77. Kantner, J. (2012). Realism, reality, and routes: Evaluating cost-surface and cost-path algorithms. In D. A. White & S. L. Surface-Evans (Eds.), Least cost analysis of social landscapes: Archaeological case studies (pp. 225–238). Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  78. Kardulias, P. N., & Hall, T. D. (2008). Archaeology and world-systems analysis. World Archaeology, 40, 572–583.Google Scholar
  79. Khalidi, L., Inizan, M.-L., Gratuze, B., & Crassard, R. (2007). The formation of a Southern Red Sea-scape in the Late Prehistoric period: Tracing cross-Red Sea culture-contact, interaction and maritime communities along the Tihamah coastal plain, Yemen in the third to first millennium BC. In J. Starkey, P. Starkey, & T. Wilkinson (Eds.), Natural resources and cultural connections of the Red Sea (pp. 35–43). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  80. Khalidi, L., Inizan, M.-L., Gratuze, B., & Crassard, R. (2013). Considering the Arabian Neolithic through a reconstitution of interregional obsidian distribution patterns in the region. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 24, 59–67.Google Scholar
  81. Kitchen, K. A. (2004). The elusive land of Punt revisited. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region: Proceedings of Red Sea Project I held in the British Museum, October 2002 (pp. 25–32). Oxford: Archaeopress, Oxford.Google Scholar
  82. Kowalewski, S. (1990). Conclusions. In S. K. Fish & S. Kowalewski (Eds.), The archaeology of regions: A case for full-coverage survey (pp. 261–277). Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  83. Kowalewski, S. (2008). Regional settlement pattern studies. Journal of Archaeological Research, 16, 225–285.Google Scholar
  84. Kvamme, K. (1999). Recent directions and developments in Geographical Information Systems. Journal of Archaeological Research, 7(2), 153–201.Google Scholar
  85. Llobera, M. (2012). Life on a pixel: Challenges in the development of digital methods within an "interpretive" landscape archaeological framework. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 19, 495–509.Google Scholar
  86. Machado, M. J., Perez-Gonzalez, A., & Benito, G. (1998). Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 4000 years in the Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Quaternary Research, 49, 312–321.Google Scholar
  87. Manzo, A. (2009). Capra nubiana in Berbere Sauce? Pre-Aksumite art and identity building. African Archaeological Review, 26, 291–303.Google Scholar
  88. Marcus, J. (2008). The archaeological evidence for social evolution. Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 37, 251–266.Google Scholar
  89. McCoy, M. D., & Ladefoged, T. N. (2009). New developments in the use of spatial technology in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research, 17, 263–295.Google Scholar
  90. McIntosh, S. K. (1999). Pathways to complexity: An African perspective. In S. K. McIntosh (Ed.), Beyond chiefdoms: Pathways to complexity in Africa (pp. 1–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Meeks, D. (2003). Locating Punt. In D. O’Connor & S. Quirke (Eds.), Mysterious lands (pp. 53–80). London: UCL.Google Scholar
  92. Mehrer, M. W., & Wescott, K. L. (2006). GIS and archaeological site location modelling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  93. Michels, J. W. (1988). The Axumite kingdom: A settlement archaeology perspective. In A. A. Gromyko (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Ethiopian Studies (pp. 173–183). Moscow: Nauka Publishers.Google Scholar
  94. Michels, J. W. (1994). Regional political organization in the Axum-Yeha area during the Pre-Axumite and Axumite eras. Etudes Éthiopiennes, 1, 61–80.Google Scholar
  95. Michels, J. W. (2005). Changing settlement patterns in the Aksum-Yeha region of Ethiopia: 700 BC-AD 850. BAR International Series 1446. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  96. Mitchell, P. (2005). African connections: Archaeological perspectives on Africa and the wider world. Lanham: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  97. Monroe, J. C. (2013). Power and agency in precolonial African states. Annual Review of Anthropology, 42, 17–35.Google Scholar
  98. Munro-Hay, S. C. (1991). Aksum: An African civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Munro-Hay, S. C. (1993). State development and urbanism in northern Ethiopia. In T. Shaw (Ed.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals, and towns (pp. 609–621). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. Pauketat, T. (2007). Chiefdoms and other archaeological delusions. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  101. Peacock, D., & Blue, L. (2007). The ancient Red Sea port of Adulis, Eritrea. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  102. Pearson, C. E. (1980). Rank-size distributions and the analysis of prehistoric settlement systems. Journal of Anthropological Research, 36, 453–462.Google Scholar
  103. Phillips, J. (1997). Punt and Aksum: Egypt and the Horn of Africa. The Journal of African History, 38, 423–457.Google Scholar
  104. Phillips, J. (2004). Pre-Aksumite Aksum and its neighbors. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region (pp. 79–85). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  105. Phillipson, D. W. (1998). Ancient Ethiopia: Aksum, its antecedents and successors. London: British Museum Press.Google Scholar
  106. Phillipson, D. W. (Ed.). (2000). Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia, 1993–7, Vol. 1 and 2. London: The British Institute in Eastern Africa.Google Scholar
  107. Phillipson, D. W. (2009). The first millennium BC in the highlands of northern Ethiopia and south-central Eritrea: A reassessment of cultural and political development. African Archaeological Review, 26, 257–274.Google Scholar
  108. Phillipson, D. W. (2012). Foundations of an African civilization: Aksum and the Northern Horn 1000 BC–AD 1300. Woodbridge: James Currey.Google Scholar
  109. Pinder, D., Shimada, I., & Gregory, D. (1979). The nearest-neighbor statistic: Archaeological application and new developments. American Antiquity, 44, 430–445.Google Scholar
  110. Plog, F. T., & Hill, J. N. (1971). Explaining variability in the distribution of sites. In G. J. Gumerman (Ed.), The distribution of prehistoric population aggregates (pp. 7–36). Prescott, AZ: Prescott College Press.Google Scholar
  111. Raunig, W. (2004). Adulis to Aksum: Charting the course of antiquity’s most important trade route in East Africa. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  112. Redmond, E. M., & Spencer, C. S. (2012). Chiefdoms at the threshold: The competitive origins of the primary state. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 31, 22–37.Google Scholar
  113. Renfrew, C. (1975). Trade as action at a distance: Questions of integration and communication. In J. A. Sabloff & C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky (Eds.), Ancient civilization and trade (pp. 3–59). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  114. Robertshaw, P. (2009). African archaeology in world perspective. In S. E. Falconer & C. L. Redman (Eds.), Polities and power: Archaeological perspectives on the landscapes of early states (pp. 208–220). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  115. Robin, C., & de Maigret, A. (1998). Le grand temple de Yéha (Tigray, Éthiopie) après la première campagne de fouilles de la mission Française 1998. Comptes-rendus des Séances de l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Letres, 737–798.Google Scholar
  116. Savage, S. (1997). Assessing departures from log-normality in the rank-size rule. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, 233–244.Google Scholar
  117. Schmid, T., Koch, M., Di Blasi, M. C., & Hagos, M. (2008). Spatial and spectral analysis of soil surface properties for an archaeological area in Aksum, Ethiopia, applying high and medium resolution data. Catena, 75, 93–101.Google Scholar
  118. Schmidt, P. R., & Curtis, M. C. (2001). Urban precursors in the Horn: Early 1st-millennium BC communities in Eritrea. Antiquity, 75, 849–859.Google Scholar
  119. Schmidt, P. R., & Curtis, M. C. (2008). The development of archaeology in Eritrea. In P. Schmidt, M. Curtis, & Z. Teka (Eds.), The archaeology of ancient Eritrea (pp. 1–17). Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press.Google Scholar
  120. Schmidt, P. R., Curtis, M. C., & Teka, Z. (Eds.). (2008). The archaeology of ancient Eritrea. Trenton, NJ: The Red Sea Press.Google Scholar
  121. Schneider, R. (1973). Deux inscriptions Sudarabiques du Tigre. Biblotheca Orientalis, 30, 385–389.Google Scholar
  122. Schneider, R. (1976). L’inscription chrétienne d’Ezana en écriture Sudarabe. Annales d’Éthiopie, 10, 109–117.Google Scholar
  123. Sernicola, L. (2008). Il modello d’insediamento sull’altopiano tigrino (Etiopia settentrionale/Eritrea centrale) in epoca pre-Aksumita e Aksumita (ca 700 A.C.–800 A.C.). Un contributo da Aksum. PhD Dissertation: University of Naples.Google Scholar
  124. Sernicola, L., & Phillipson, L. (2011). Aksum’s regional trade: New evidence from archaeological survey. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 46(2), 190–204.Google Scholar
  125. Smith, A. T. (2003). The political landscape: Constellations of authority in early complex polities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  126. Smith, M. E. (2012). The comparative archaeology of complex societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Stahl, A. B. (1999). Perceiving variability in time and space: The evolutionary mapping of African societies. In S. K. McIntosh (Ed.), Beyond chiefdoms: Pathways to complexity in Africa (pp. 39–55). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  128. Stahl, A. B. (2009). The archaeology of African history. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 42, 241–255.Google Scholar
  129. Stein, G. (1998). Heterogeneity, power, and political economy: Some current research issues in the archaeology of Old World complex societies. Journal of Archaeological Research, 6, 1–44.Google Scholar
  130. Stein, G. (Ed.). (2005). The archaeology of colonial encounters: Comparative perspectives. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  131. Stone, G. D. (1996). Settlement ecology: The social and spatial organization of Kofyar agriculture. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  132. Sulas, F., Madella, M., & French, C. (2009). State formation and water resources management in the Horn of Africa: The Aksumite Kingdom of the northern Ethiopian highlands. World Archaeology, 41, 2–15.Google Scholar
  133. Terrenato, N. (2004). Sample size matters! The paradox of global trends and local surveys. In S. E. Alcock & J. F. Cherry (Eds.), Side-by-side survey: Comparative regional studies in the Mediterranean world (pp. 36–48). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  134. Tilley, C. (1994). The phenomenology of landscape. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  135. Tobler, W. (1993). Three presentations on geographical analysis and modeling. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, Technical Report 93–1.Google Scholar
  136. Trigger, B. (1967). Settlement archaeology: Its goals and promise. American Antiquity, 32, 149–160.Google Scholar
  137. Trigger, B. (1968). The determinants of settlement patterns. In K. C. Chang (Ed.), Settlement archaeology (pp. 53–78). Palo Alto, CA: National Press.Google Scholar
  138. Trigger, B. (2003). Understanding early civilizations: A comparative study. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.Google Scholar
  139. Trignali, G. (1965). Cenni sulle "Ona" di Asmara e Dintorni. Annales d’Éthiopie, 6, 143–152.Google Scholar
  140. Trignali, G., & Munro-Hay, S. C. (1991). The Ona culture of Asmara and Hamasien. Rassegna di Studi Etiopici, 35, 135–170.Google Scholar
  141. Vita-Finzi, C., & Higgs, E. S. (1970). Prehistoric economy in the Mount Carmel area of Palestine: Site catchment analysis. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 36, 1–42.Google Scholar
  142. Vogt, B., & Sedov, A. V. (1998). The Sabir culture and coastal Yemen during the second millennium BC: The present state of discussion. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 28, 261–270.Google Scholar
  143. Voorrips, A., & O’Shea, J. (1987). Conditional spatial patterning: Beyond the nearest neighbor. American Antiquity, 52, 500–521.Google Scholar
  144. Wenig, S. (1997). German fieldwork in Eritrea. Nyame Akuma, 48, 20–21.Google Scholar
  145. Wenig, S. (2006). In kaiserlichem auftrag: Die Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann (Vol. 1, Die akteure und die wissenschaftlichen unternehmungen der DAE in Eritrea). Aichwald: Linden Soft.Google Scholar
  146. Wheatley, D., & Gillings, M. (2002). Spatial technology and archaeology: The archaeological applications of GIS. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  147. White, D. A., & Surface-Evans, S. L. (2012). Least cost analysis of social landscapes: Archaeological case studies. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  148. Wilkinson, T. J. (2000). Regional approaches to Mesopotamian archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Research, 8, 219–267.Google Scholar
  149. Wilkinson, T. J. (2003). Archaeological landscapes of the Near East. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  150. Willey, G. (1953). Prehistoric settlement patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  151. Wolf, P., & Nowotnick, U. (2010). The Almaqah temple of Mekaber Ga’ewa near Wuqro (Tigray/Ethiopia). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 40, 367–380.Google Scholar
  152. Wright, H. T., & Johnson, G. A. (1975). Population, exchange, and early state formation in Southwestern Iran. American Anthropologist, 77, 267–289.Google Scholar
  153. Yoffee, N. (2005). Myths of the archaic state: Evolution of the earliest cities, states, and civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Yukich, S. T. K. (2013). Spatial dimensions of social complexity: Environment, economy, and settlement in the Jabbul Plain, 3000–550 BC. PhD Dissertation: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  155. Yule, P. (2013a). Zafar, capital of Himyar, rehabilitation of a 'decadent' society, excavations of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg 1998–2010 in the highlands of the Yemen. Wiesbaden: Deutsche Orient- Gesellschaft.Google Scholar
  156. Yule, P. (2013b). A late antique Christian king from Zafar, southern Arabia. Antiquity, 87, 1124–1135.Google Scholar
  157. Zarins, J. (1990). Obsidian and the Red Sea trade: Prehistoric aspects. In M. Taddei & P. Callieri (Eds.), South Asian archaeology 1987 (pp. 507–541). Rome: IsMEO.Google Scholar
  158. Zarins, J. (1996). Obsidian in the larger context of Predynastic/Archaic Egyptian Rea Sea trade. In J. Reade (Ed.), The Indian Ocean in antiquity (pp. 89–106). London: Kegan Paul International.Google Scholar
  159. Zipf, G. (1949). Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Harrower
    • 1
  • A. Catherine D’Andrea
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Near Eastern Studies, Gilman Hall 113Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of ArchaeologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations