Intersections, Networks and the Genesis of Social Complexity on the Nyali Coast of East Africa

Abstract

This paper examines intersections between different societies occupying the Nyali Coast region of southern Kenya from the late first millennium ad to the mid-second millennium ad. We explore interaction between societies at three scales: between hunter-gatherers and farmers in the coastal hinterland, between the hinterland and the coast and between the coast and the wider Indian Ocean. The patterns indicate that local intersections in the hinterland between hunter-gatherers and farmers went hand-in-hand with both the emergence of larger settlements in the hinterland and on the coast, and participation in a pan-Indian Ocean trade network.

Résumé

Ce document examine des intersections entre différentes sociétés occupant la région de côte de Nyali du Kenya méridional, à partir vers la fin de le premier millénium ap. J.-C. et le milieu du deuxième millénium ap. J.-C. Nous explorons l'interaction entre ces sociétés à trois échelles: entre les chasseur-ramasseurs et les fermiers dans l'intérieur; entre l'intérieur et la côte; et entre la côte et l'Océan Indien plus large. Les modèles indiquent que les intersections locales dans l'intérieur entre les chasseur-ramasseurs et les fermiers sont allées de pair avec l'apparition de plus grands établissment dans la région, et la participation à un réseau du commerce de l'Océan Indien.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Abungu, G. H. O. (1989). Communities on the River Tana, Kenya: An archaeological study of relations between the delta and the river basin, 700–1800 AD. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge

  2. Abungu, G. H. O., & Mutoro, H. W. (1993). Coast-interior settlements and social relations in the Kenya coastal hinterland. In T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, & A. Okpoko (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (694–704). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Allen, J. (1981). Swahili culture and the nature of east coast settlement. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 14, 306–334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Blench, R. (1993a). Ethnographic and linguistic evidence for the prehistory of African ruminant livestock, horses and ponies. In T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, & A. Okpoko (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (71–103). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Blench, R. (1993b). Recent developments in African language classification. In T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, & A. Okpoko (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (126–138). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Boivin, N., Crowther, A., Helm, R., & Fuller, D. Q. (2013). East Africa and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean world. Journal of World Prehistory 26(3), in press.

  7. Boivin, N., Blench, R., & Fuller, D. (2009). Archaeological, linguistic and historical sources on ancient seafaring: A multidisciplinary approach to the study of early maritime contact and exchange in the Arabian penninsula. In M. Petraglia & J. Rose (Eds.), The evolution of human populations in Arabia (251–278). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Boivin, N., & Fuller, D. Q. (2009). Shell middens, ships and seeds: Exploring coastal subsistence, maritime trade and the dispersal of domesticates in and around the ancient Arabian penninsula. Journal of World Prehistory, 22, 113–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Boivin, N., Fuller, D. Q., & Crowther, A. (2012). Old World globalization and the Columbian Exchange: Comparison and contrast. World Archaeology, 44(4), 452–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bollig, M. (1987). Ethnic relations and spatial mobility in Africa: A review of the peripatetic niche. In Rao, A. (Ed.), The other nomads: Peripatetic minorities in cross-cultural perspective. Kolner Ethnologische Mitteilungen, vol. 8. Cologne: Bohlau Verlag.

  11. Boxem, H. W., de Meester, T., & Smaling, E. M. A. (Eds.) (1987). Soils of the Kilifi Area, Kenya. Reconnaissance soil survey report R11. Nairobi: Kenya Soil Survey

  12. Brosius, J.P. (1995). Bornean forest trade in historical and regional perspective: The case of Penana hunter-gatherers of Sarawak. In J. Fox (Ed.), Society and non-timber forest products in tropical Asia (13–26). Occasional Papers, Environment Series, No. 19. Honolulu: East–West Center.

  13. Casson, L. (1989). The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with introduction, translation and commentary. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chami, F. (1992). Limbo: Early iron-working in south-eastern Tanzania. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 27, 45–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chami, F. (1994). The Tanzanian coast in the first millennium AD: Archaeology of the iron-working, farming communities. Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Chami, F. (1999). The Early Iron Age on Mafia and its relationship with the mainland. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 34, 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Chami, F. (2003). Early Ironworking communities on the East African coast: Excavations at Kivinja, Tanzania. In S. Kusimba & C. Kusimba (Eds.), East African archaeology: Foragers, potters, smiths, and traders (87–97). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Chami, F. (2004). The archaeology of the Mafia Archipelago, Tanzania. In F. Chami, G. Pwiti & C. Radimilahy (Eds.), African Archaeological Network: Reports and reviews (73–101). Studies in the African Past 4. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam Press

  19. Chami, F. (2009). Zanzibar and the Swahili coast from c. 30,000 years ago. Dar es Salaam: E&D Vision.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Chami, F., & Msemwa, P. (1997a). A new look at culture and trade on the Azania coast. Current Anthropology, 38(4), 673–677.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Chami, F., & Msemwa, P. (1997b). The excavation at Kwale island, south of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nyame Akuma, 48, 45–56.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Chaudhuri, K. N. (1985). Trade and civilisation in the Indian Ocean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Clutton-Brock, J. (1993). The spread of domestic animals in Africa. In T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, & A. Okpoko (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (60–70). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Collett, D. P. (1985). The spread of early iron producing communities in eastern and southern Africa. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge

  25. Diamond, J., & Bellwood, P. (2003). Farmers and their languages: The first expansions. Science, 300(5619), 597-603.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ehret, C. (1979). On the antiquity of agriculture in Ethiopia. The Journal of African History, 20, 161–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Ehret, C. (1998). An African Classical Age: Eastern and southern Africa in world history, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Fedders, A., & Salvadori, C. (1988). Peoples and cultures of Kenya. Nairobi: Transafrica Rex Collings in association with KTDC.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Fleisher, J. (2003). Viewing stonetowns from the countryside: An archaeological approach to Swahili regional systems, AD 800–1500. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Virginia.

  30. Fleisher, J. (2010a). Swahili synoecism: Rural settlements and town formation on the central East African coast, AD 750–1500. Journal of Field Archaeology, 35(3), 265–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Fleisher, J. (2010b). Rituals of consumption and the politics of feasting on the Eastern African coast, AD 700–1500. Journal of World Prehistory, 23(4), 195–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Fleisher, J., & Wynne-Jones, S. (2011). Ceramics and the early Swahili: Deconstructing the Early Tana Tradition. African Archaeological Review, 28, 245–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Fuller, D. Q., & Boivin, N. (2009). Crops, cattle and commensals across the Indian Ocean: Current and potential archaeobiological evidence. Etudes Océan Indien, 42(43), 13–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Fuller, D. Q., Boivin, N., Hoogervorst, T., & Allaby, R. (2011). Across the Indian Ocean: The prehistoric movement of plants and animals. Antiquity, 85(238), 544–558.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. (1962). The East African coast: Select documents from the first to the earlier nineteenth centuries. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Giblin, J., Clement, A., & Humphris, J. (2010). An Urewe burial in Rwanda: Exchange, health, wealth and violence c. AD 400. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 45, 276–297.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Giblin, J., & Fuller, D. Q. (2011). First and second millennium AD agriculture in Rwanda: Archaeobotanical finds and radiocarbon dates from seven sites. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 20, 253–265.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Gonder, M. K., Mortensen, H. M., Reed, F. A., de Sousa, A., & Tishkoff, S. A. (2007). Whole-mtDNA genome sequence analysis of ancient African lineages. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 757–768.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Greenberg, J. H. (1963). The languages of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Grinker, R. (1994). Houses in the rainforest: Ethnicity and inequality among farmers and foragers in central Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Hamerlynck, O., Nyunja, J., Luke, Q., Nyingi, D., Lebrun, D., & Duvail, S. (2010). The communal forest, wetland, rangeland and agricultural landscape mosaics of the Lower Tana, Kenya: A socio-ecological entity in peril. In C. Bélair et al. (Eds.), Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes: Background to the ‘Satoyama Initiative for the benefit of biodiversity and human well-being’ (54–62). Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Haro, J.S. (2008). A comparative fabric attribute analysis of EIW Pottery from Kwale (Mombasa), Limbo, Mafia and Kwale (Kisiju) sites. MA dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

  43. Helm, R. (2000). Conflicting histories: The archaeology of the iron-working farming communities in the central and southern coast region of Kenya. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Bristol.

  44. Helm, R., Crowther, A., Shipton, C., Tengeza, A., & Boivin, N. (2012). Exploring the emergence of agriculture, interaction and trade on the East African littoral: Preliminary results from Kenya. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 47, 39–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Hobley, C. W. (1895). Upon a visit to Tsavo and the Taita Highland. The Geographical Journal, 5, 545–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Horton, M. C. (1996). Shanga: The archaeology of a Muslim trading community on the coast of East Africa. London: British Institute in Eastern Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Horton, M., & Middleton, J. (2000). The Swahili: The social landscape of a mercantile society. Cambridge: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Juma, A. (2004). Unguja Ukuu on Zanzibar: An archaeological study of early urbanism. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Kassam, A., & Bashuna, A. B. (2004). Marginalisation of the Waata Oromo hunter-gatherers of Kenya: Insider and outsider perspectives. Africa, 74(2), 194–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Kirkman, J. S. (1954). The Arab city of Gedi: Excavations at the Great Mosque, architecture and finds. London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Kirkman, J. S. (1966). Ungwana on the Tana. Mouton: The Hague.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kusimba, C. M. (1999). The rise and fall of Swahili states. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Kusimba, C. M., & Kusimba, S. B. (2000). Hinterlands and cities: Archaeological investigations of economy and trade in Tsavo, south-eastern Kenya. Nyame Akuma, 54, 13–24.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Kusimba, C. M., & Kusimba, S. B. (2005). Mosaics and interactions: East Africa, 2000 b.p. to the present. In A. Stahl (Ed.), African archaeology: A critical introduction (392–419). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Kusimba, S. B. (2003). African foragers: Environment, technology, interactions. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Lane, P. (2004). The ‘moving frontier’ and the transition to food production in Kenya. Azania Archaeological Research in Africa, 39, 243–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Lane, P., Ashley, C., Seitsonen, O., Harvey, P., Mire, S., & Odede, F. (2007). The transition to farming in eastern Africa: New faunal and dating evidence from Wadh Lang’o and Usenge, Kenya. Antiquity, 81, 62–81.

    Google Scholar 

  58. LaViolette, A. (2008). Swahili cosmopolitanism in Africa and the Indian Ocean World, AD 600–1500. Archaeologies, 4, 24–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. McNeill, J. R., & McNeill, W. H. (2003). The Human Web: A bird’s-eye view of world history. New York: WW Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Merritt, H. (1975). A history of the Taita of Kenya. Unpublished PhD thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington

  61. Michieka, D. O., Van der Pouw, B. J. A., & Vleeshouwer, J. J. (1978). Soils of the Kwale-Mombasa-Lunga Area. Reconnaissance soil survey report, 3. Nairobi: Ministry of Agriculture, National Agricultural Laboratories, Kenya Soil Survey.

  62. Mitchell, P. J. (2005). African connections: Archaeological perspectives on Africa and the wider world. Walnut Creek: AltaMira.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Moomaw, J. C. (1960). Plant ecology of the Coast Region of Kenya Colony, British East Africa. Nairobi: Kenya Department of Agriculture.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Mutoro, H. W. (1987). An archaeological study of the Mijikenda Kaya settlement. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.

  65. Mutoro, H. W. (1988). A nearest neighbour analysis of the Mijikenda Makaya of the Kenya coastal hinterland. Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, 1(2).

  66. M’Mbogori, F. N. J. (2011). Population and ceramic traditions: revisiting the Tana ware of coastal Kenya (7th – 14th century AD). Unpublished PhD thesis, Université Paris Ouest, Nanterre.

  67. Nurse, D. (1986). Reconstruction of Dahalo history. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 7(2), 267–305.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Nurse, D., & Hinnesbusch, T. (1993). Swahili and Sabaki: A linguistic history. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Omi, G. (Ed.) (1991). An interim report on the East and North-East African Prehistory Research Project. Shinshu University.

  70. Parkin, D. (1991). Sacred void: Spatial images of work and ritual among the Giriama of Kenya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Pawlowicz, M.C. (2011). Finding their place in the Swahili world: An archaeological exploration of southern Tanzania. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Virginia.

  72. Pereira, L., Macaulay, V., Torroni, A., Scozzari, R., Prata, M. J., & Amorim, A. (2001). Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: Insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade. Annals of Human Genetics, 65, 439–458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Pock Tsy, J.-M. L., Lumaret, R., Mayne, D., Vall, A. O. M., Abutaba, Y. I. M., Sagna, M., Raoseta, S. O. R., & Danthu, P. (2009). Chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests a West African centre of origin for the baobab, Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacoideae, Malvaceae). Molecular Ecology, 18, 1707–1715.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Pouwels, R. L. (1987). Horn and crescent: Cultural change and traditional Islam on the East African coast, 800–1900. African Studies Series, 53. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Pradines, S. (2010). Gedi, une cité portuaire swahilie: Islam médiéval en Afrique orientale. Le Caire: Institut Français d'archéologie orientale.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Prendergast, M. E. (2010). Diversity in East African foraging and food producing communities. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 45(1), 1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Reimer, P. J., Baillie, M. G. L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Blackwell, P. G., et al. (2009). OKIntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0-50,000years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 51(4), 1111-1150.

  78. Robertson, S. A. (1987). Preliminary floristic survey of Kaya forests of coastal Kenya. A report to the Director, National Museums of Kenya. Nairobi: National Museums of Kenya

  79. Robertson, S. A., & Luke, W. R. Q. (1993). Kenya coastal forests: The report of the NMK/WWF coastal forest survey. Kenya coast forest status, conservation and management. Nairobi: National Museums of Kenya.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Salas, A., Richards, M., De la Fe, T., Lareu, M.-V., Sobrino, B., Sánchez-Diz, P., et al. (2002). The making of the African mtDNA landscape. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 1082–1111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Schienfeldt, L. B., Soi, S., & Tishkoff, S. A. (2010). Working towards a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic and genetic data for inferring African population history. PNAS, 107, 8931–8938.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Sherriff, A. (2010). Dhow cultures of the Indian Ocean: Cosmopolitanism, commerce and Islam. London: Hurst.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Sombroek, W. G., Braun, H. M. H. K., & Van der Pouw, B. J. A. (1982). Exploratory soil map and agro-climatic zone map of Kenya, 1980. Scale 1:1000,000. Nairobi: Kenya Soil Survey.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Soper, R. C. (1967). Kwale: An early Iron Age site in south-eastern Kenya. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 2, 1–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Soper, R. C. (1975). Notes on some caves in Kilifi district. Cave Exploration Group of East Africa Society, 5, 38–40.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Spear, T. T. (1978). The Kaya complex: A history of the Mijikenda peoples of the Kenya coast to 1900. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Stahl, A. (2005). Introduction. In A. Stahl (Ed.), African archaeology: A critical introduction (1–23). Blackwell: Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Stiles, D. (1981). Hunters of the northern East African coast: Origins and historical processes. Africa, 51, 848–862.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Stiles, D. (1982). A history of the hunting peoples of the northern East African coast: Ecological and socioeconomic considerations. Paideuma, 28, 165–174.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Stiles, D. (1993). Hunter-gatherer trade in wild forest products in the early centuries A.D. with the port of Broach, India. Asian Perspectives, 32(2), 153–167.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Strandes, J. (1961[1899]). The Portuguese period in East Africa (transl. and ed. by J. F. Wallwork and J. S. Kirkman). Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.

  92. Terer, T., Ndiritu, G. G., & Gichuki, N. N. (2004). Socio-economic values and traditional strategies of managing wetland resources in Lower Tana River, Kenya. Hydrobiologia, 527, 3–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Thorbahn, P. (1979). Precolonial ivory trade of East Africa: Reconstruction of a human-elephant ecosystem. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  94. Tishkoff, S. A., Gonder, M. K., Henn, B. M., Mortensen, H., Knight, A., Gignoux, C., et al. (2007a). History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 2180–2195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Tishkoff, S. A., Reed, F. A., Ranciaro, A., Voight, B. F., Babbitt, C. C., Silverman, J. S., et al. (2007b). Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics, 39, 31–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Tishkoff, S. A., Reed, F. A., Friedlaender, R. F., Ehret, C., Ranciaro, A., Froment, A., et al. (2009). The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans. Science, 324, 1035–1044.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Tosco, M. (1991). A grammatical sketch of Dahalo (including texts and a glossary). Kuschitische Sprachstudien, 8. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Walsh, M. T. (1990). The Degere: Forgotten hunter-gatherers of the East African Coast. Cambridge Anthropology, 14, 68–81.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Walsh, M. T. (1992a). Mijikenda origins: A review of the evidence. Transafrican Journal of History, 21, 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Walsh, M. T. (1992/3). The Vuna and Degere: Remnants and outcasts among the Duruma and Digo of Kenya and Tanzania. Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnoarchaeological Research, 34/35, 133–147.

  101. Walsh, M. (2003). Hunter-gatherers in the hinterland of Mombasa: Notes on the Maumba of Chonyi and related traditions. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 38, 148–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Walshaw, S. C. (2010). Converting to rice: Urbanization, Islamization and crops on Pemba Island, Tanzania, AD 700–1500. World Archaeology, 42, 137–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Walz, J. R. (2011). Route to a Regional Past: An Archaeology of the Lower Pangani (Ruvu) Basin, Tanzania, 500–1900 CE. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Florida.

  104. Willis, J. (1993). Mombasa, the Swahili and the making of the Mijikenda. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Willis, J., & Miers, S. (1997). Becoming a child of the house: Incorporation, authority and resistance in Giriama society. The Journal of African History, 38, 479–495.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Wilson, T. H. (1980). The monumental architecture and archaeology of the central and southern coast of Kenya. Nairobi: National Museums of Kenya.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Wood, E. T., Stover, D. A., Ehret, C., Destro-Bisol, G., Spedini, G., McLeod, H., et al. (2005). Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: Evidence for sex-biased demographic processes. European Journal of Human Genetics, 13, 867–876.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Wright, D. (2005). New perspectives on early regional interaction networks of East African trade: A view from Tsavo National Park, Kenya. African Archaeological Review, 22(3), 111–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Wright, D. (2007). Tethered mobility and riparian resource exploitation among Neolithic hunters and herders in the Galana river basin, Kenyan coastal lowlands. Environmental Archaeology, 12(1), 25–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Wynne-Jones, S. (2005). Urbanisation at Kilwa, Tanzania AD 800–1400. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Jonathan Walz for the invitation to submit this paper and for edits. Four anonymous reviewers provided useful recommendations for improvements. Funding was provided by the Sealinks Project under a European Research Council Grant (agreement no. 206148) awarded to NB. CS is funded by a University of Queensland Postdoctoral Research Fellowship and AC by a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship. Permission to conduct research was granted by the Office of the President of the Republic of Kenya through affiliation with the National Museums of Kenya. We are grateful for the support and assistance of these institutions as well as the British Institute in Eastern Africa. Particular thanks are extended to Lawrence Chiro, Anthony Githitho, Jambo Haro, Severinus Jembe, Herman Kiriama, Purity Kiura and Amini Tengeza of the National Museums of Kenya, and to Johnpius Mpangarusya, a graduate scholar of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, for help with this research.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Shipton.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shipton, C., Helm, R., Boivin, N. et al. Intersections, Networks and the Genesis of Social Complexity on the Nyali Coast of East Africa. Afr Archaeol Rev 30, 427–453 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437-013-9140-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Iron Age
  • Swahili
  • Indian Ocean
  • Trade
  • Agriculture
  • Foragers