African Archaeological Review

, Volume 29, Issue 2–3, pp 131–170 | Cite as

It’s Getting Better All the Time: Comparative Perspectives from Oceania and West Africa on Genetic Analysis and Archaeology

  • Susan Keech McIntoshEmail author
  • Laura B. Scheinfeldt
Disciplinary Overview


Technological advances are making genetic data collection and analysis feasible on a scale unimaginable only a few years ago. Early genetic research using mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome provided important insights for macroscale modeling of regional and continent-wide population movements, but the capacity to study the entire genome now opens an era of finer-grained, mesoscale studies of regional and local population histories that are more compatible with the scale of archaeological analysis. The utility of integrating both types of data is illustrated by a case study from Oceania, where genetic studies were used to evaluate two models for the geographic origins of the populations that colonized Polynesia beginning ca. 3000 bp, bringing with them the distinctive Lapita cultural assemblage. A second case study considers the application of genetic studies to an understanding of Fulbe history, especially that of the pastoral Fulbe. Both archaeological and genetic data are underdeveloped for the key Fulbe homeland regions of Mauritania and Senegal, but recent research in the Middle Senegal Valley permits some conjectures on the history of Fulbe nomadic pastoralism. The article concludes with suggestions for a multidisciplinary research agenda to expand and upgrade the quality of relevant archaeological data, incorporate biodistance studies of human skeletal material, and improve and expand genetic sampling using more historically sensitive collection protocols.


Fulbe history Genetic Migration Pastoralists 


Les avancées technologiques permettent la collecte et l’analyse de données génétiques à une échelle inimaginable ne serait-ce qu’il y a quelques années. Les premières recherches génétiques utilisant l'ADN mitochondrial et le chromosome Y ont fourni des renseignements importants pour la modélisation à la macro-échelle des mouvements de population régionaux et continentaux. Mais la capacité d’étudier l’ensemble du génome ouvre maintenant une ère d’études plus précises à la méso-échelle—études de l’histoire des populations locales et régionales plus adaptées à l’échelle de l’analyse archéologique. L'utilité de l'intégration des deux types de données est illustrée par une étude de cas située en Océanie, où les études génétiques ont été utilisées pour évaluer les deux modèles sur l’origine des populations qui ont colonisé la Polynésie, dès 3000 ans BP et apporté avec eux l'ensemble culturel distinctif appelé Lapita. Une deuxième analyse examine l'application des études génétiques à une meilleure compréhension de l'histoire des Peuls (Fulbé), en particulier celle des Fulbé pastoralistes. Les données archéologiques et génétiques sont sous-développées pour les foyers de population Fulbe en Mauritanie et au Sénégal, mais des recherches récentes dans la vallée du Moyen-Sénégal permettent quelques hypothèses sur l'histoire du pastoralisme nomade Fulbe. L'article conclut avec des suggestions pour un programme de recherches multidisciplinaires destiné à élargir et améliorer la qualité des données archéologiques pertinentes, d'intégrer des études d’affinité biologique de matériel squelettique humain, et d'améliorer et d'élargir l'échantillonnage génétique en utilisant des protocoles de collection plus sensibles à la dimension historique.



We are grateful to Roger Blench and Scott MacEachern for reading a draft of this paper and making useful suggestions. In addition, we thank Jonathan S. Friedlaender, Françoise Friedlaender, and Janet Monge for helpful discussions.


  1. Abu-Manga, A.-A. (1999). Socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-linguistic diversity among the Fulbe of the Sudan Republic. In V. Azarya, A. Breedveld, M. de Bruijn, & H. Van Dijk (Eds.), Pastoralists under pressure?: Fulbe societies confronting change in West Africa (pp. 51–68). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  2. Amblard-Pison, S. (2006). Communautes villageoises neolithiques des Dhars Tichitt et Oualata (Mauritanie). Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
  3. Anfinset, N. (2010). Metal, nomads and culture contact: The Middle East and North Africa (Approaches to anthropological archaeology). London: Equinox.Google Scholar
  4. Babalini, C., Martinez-Labarga, C., Lorente, J. A., Lorente, M., & Rickards, O. (2002). Ancient DNA studies: First results. In S. di Lernia & G. Manzi (Eds.), Sand, stones, and bones: The archaeology of death in the Wadi Tanezzuft Valley (5000-2000 BP) (pp. 269–280). Firenze: All'Insegna del Giglio.Google Scholar
  5. Balasse, M., Ambrose, S., Smith, A. B., & Price, T. D. (2002). The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the South-western Cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 917–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbieri, C., Whitten, M., Beyer, K., Schreiber, H., Li, M., & Pakendorf, B. (2012). Contrasting maternal and paternal histories in the linguistic context of Burkina Faso. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(4), 1213–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. London: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  8. Bathily, M., Khattar, M., & Vernet, R. (1998). Les sites néolithiques de Khat Lemaïteg (Amatlich) en Mauritanie occidentale. Nouakchott: C.R.I.A.Google Scholar
  9. Beleza, S., Gusmao, L., Amorim, A., Carracedo, A., & Salas, A. (2005). The genetic legacy of western Bantu migrations. Human Genetics, 117(4), 366–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanc, M., Sanchez-Mazas, A., Van Blyenburgh, N. H., Sevin, A., Pison, G., & Langaney, A. (1990). Interethnic genetic differentiation: GM polymorphism in eastern Senegal. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 46(2), 383–383.Google Scholar
  11. Blench, R. (1999). Why are there so many pastoral groups in eastern Africa? In V. Azarya, A. Breedveld, M. de Bruijn, & H. Van Dijk (Eds.), Pastoralists under pressure?: Fulbe societies confronting change in West Africa (pp. 29–50). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  12. Blench, R. M. (1990). FulBe, Fulani and Fulfulde in Nigeria: Distribution and identity. Abuja: NLC Working paper seriesGoogle Scholar
  13. Bocoum, H. (2000). L'Age du fer au Sénégal: Histoire et archéologie. Dakar: IFAN and Nouakchatt: CRIAA.Google Scholar
  14. Boutrais, J. (1994). Pour une nouvelle cartographie des Peuls. Cahiers d'études africaines, XXXIV(133-135), 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brasseur, P., & Brasseur, G. (1981). Le Peul imaginaire. In Le sol, la parole, et l'écrit, Vol. I (pp. 471–478). Paris: Société française d'histoire d'outre-mer.Google Scholar
  16. Braukamper, U. (1993). Notes on the origin of the Baggara Arab culture with special reference to the Shuwa. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 14, 13–46.Google Scholar
  17. Breunig, P., & Neumann, K. (2002). From hunters and gatherers to food producers: New archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence from the West African Sahel. In F. A. Hassan (Ed.), Droughts, food and culture (pp. 123–155). Boston: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, K., & Pluciennik, M. (2001). Archaeology and human genetics: Lessons for both. Antiquity, 75, 101–106.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, T., & Brown, K. (2011). Biomolecular archaeology: An introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. Cann, R. L., Stoneking, M., & Wilson, A. C. (1987). Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature, 325(6099), 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Capelli, C., Wilson, J. F., Richards, M., Stumpf, M. P., Gratrix, F., Oppenheimer, S., Goldstein, D. B., et al. (2001). A predominantly indigenous paternal heritage for the Austronesian-speaking peoples of insular Southeast Asia and Oceania. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 68(2), 432–443. doi: 10.1086/318205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P., & Piazza, A. (1994). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cerezo, M., Cerny, V., Carracedo, A., & Salas, A. (2011). New insights into the Lake Chad Basin population structure revealed by high-throughput genotyping of mitochondrial DNA coding SNPs. PloS One, 6(4), e18682–e18682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cerny, V., Hajek, M., Bromova, M., Cmejla, R., Diallo, I., & Brdicka, R. (2006). mtDNA of Fulani nomads and their genetic relationships to neighboring sedentary populations. Human Biology, 78(1), 9–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cerny, V., Pereira, L., Musilova, E., Kujanova, M., Vasikova, A., Blasi, P., & Novelletto, A. (2011). Genetic structure of pastoral and farmer populations in the African Sahel. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(9), 2491–2500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chappell, J., Omura, A., McCullock, M., Esat, M., Ota, Y., & Pandolfi, J. (1994). Revised late Quaternary sea levels between 70 and 30 ka from coral terraces at Huon Peninsula. In Study on coral reef terraces of the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea: Establishment of Quaternary sea level and tectonic history (pp. 155–165). Yokohama: Yokohama National University.Google Scholar
  27. Chavane, B. (1985). Villages de l'ancien Tekrour. Paris: Editions Karthala.Google Scholar
  28. Coelho, M., Luiselli, D., Bertorelle, G., Lopes, A. I., Seixas, S., Destro-Bisol, G., & Rocha, J. (2005). Microsatellite variation and evolution of human lactase persistence. Human Genetics, 117(4), 329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coia, V., Brisighelli, F., Donati, F., Pascali, V., Boschi, I., Luiselli, D., Destro-Bisol, G., et al. (2009). A multi-perspective view of genetic variation in Cameroon. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 140(3), 454–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cox, M., & Layr, M. (2006). Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands. American Journal of Human Biology, 18(1), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cribb, R. (1991). Nomads in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cruciani, F., Santolamazza, P., Shen, P., Macaulay, V., Moral, P., Olckers, A., Underhill, P. A., et al. (2002). A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 70(5), 1197–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cruciani, F., Trombetta, B., Sellitto, D., Massaia, A., Destro-Bisol, G., Watson, E., Scozzari, R., et al. (2010). Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: A paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18(7), 800–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. David, N. (1971). The Fulani compound and the archaeologist. World Archaeology, 3(2), 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deme, A. (2003). Archaeological investigation of settlement evolution and emerging complexity in the Middle Senegal Valley. PhD dissertation, Rice University.Google Scholar
  36. Deme, A., & McIntosh, S. K. (2006). Excavations at Walaldé: New light on the settlement of the Middle Senegal Valley by iron-using peoples. Journal of African Archaeology, 4(2), 317–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diamond, J. M. (1988). Express train to Polynesia. Nature, 336(6197), 307–308. doi: 10.1038/336307a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dieterlen, G., & Ba, A. H. (1966). Les fresques d'époque bovidienne du Tassili N'Ajjer et les traditions des Peul: Hypothèses d'interprétation. Journal de la Société des Africanistes, 36(1), 141–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diop, C. A. (1959). The cultural unity of Black Africa. Chicago: Third World Press.Google Scholar
  40. Dunn, M., Terrill, A., Reesink, G., Foley, R. A., & Levinson, S. C. (2005). Structural phylogenetics and the reconstruction of ancient language history. Science, 309(5743), 2072–2075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dunne, J., Evershed, R. P., Salque, M., Cramp, L., Bruni, S., Ryan, K., Lernia, S. D., et al. (2012). First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium bc. Nature, 486(7403), 390–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dupire, M. (1962). Peuls nomades, Etude descriptive des Wodaabe du Sahel Nigérien. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie (Mâcon: Impr. Protat Frères).Google Scholar
  43. Dupire, M. (1994). Identité ethnique et processus d'incorporation tribal et étatique. Cahiers d'études africaines, XXXIV(133-135), 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dutour, O. (1989). Hommes fossiles du Sahara: Peuplements holocénes du Mali septentrional. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.Google Scholar
  45. Edwards, C. J., MacHugh, D. E., Dobney, K. M., Martin, L., Russell, N., Horwitz, L. K., Bradley, D. G., et al. (2004). Ancient DNA analysis of 101 cattle remains: Limits and prospects. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31(6), 695–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Enattah, N. S., Jensen, T. G. K., Nielsen, M., Lewinski, R., Kuokkanen, M., Rasinpera, H., Peltonen, L., et al. (2008). Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(1), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Excoffier, L., Pellegrini, B., Sanchez-Mazas, A., Simon, C., & Langaney, A. (1987). Genetics and history of sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30(S8), 151–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Foley, W. A. (1986). The Papuan language of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Friedlaender, J., Schurr, T., Gentz, F., Koki, G., Friedlaender, F. R., Horvat, G., Merriwether, D. A., et al. (2005). Expanding Southwest Pacific mitochondrial haplogroups P and Q. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 22(6), 1506–1517. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msi142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Friedlaender, J. S., Friedlaender, F. R., Hodgson, J. A., Stoltz, M., Koki, G., Horvat, G., Merriwether, D. A., et al. (2007). Melanesian mtDNA complexity. PloS One, 2(2), e248–e248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Friedlaender, J. S., Friedlaender, F. R., Reed, F. A., Kidd, K. K., Kidd, J. R., Chambers, G. K., Weber, J. L., et al. (2008). The genetic structure of Pacific Islanders. PLoS Genetics, 4(1), e19–e19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0040019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Garcea, E. (2012). Gobero: The no-return frontier: Archaeology and landscape at the Saharo-Sahelian borderland. Frankfurt: Afrika Magna Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Garrigan, D., Kingan, S. B., Pilkington, M. M., Wilder, J. A., Cox, M. P., Soodyall, H., Hammer, M. F., et al. (2007). Inferring human population sizes, divergence times and rates of gene flow from mitochondrial, X and Y chromosome resequencing data. [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]. Genetics, 177(4), 2195–2207. doi: 10.1534/genetics.107.077495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gifford-Gonzalez, D. P. (2008). Adrar Bous: Archaeology of a central Saharan granitic ring complex in Niger. Tervuren: Royal Museum for Central Africa.Google Scholar
  55. Gokee, C. (2012). Daily life in the land of Bambuk: An archaeological study of political economy at Diouboye, Senegal. PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  56. Gonzalez, A. M., Cabrera, V. M., Larruga, J. M., Tounkara, A., Noumsi, G., Thomas, B. N., & Moulds, J. M. (2006). Mitochondrial DNA variation in Mauritania and Mali and their genetic relationship to other Western Africa populations. Annals of Human Genetics, 70(5), 631–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Graver, A., Molto, E., Parr, R., Praymak, R., Walters, S., & Maki, J. (2001). Mitochondrial DNA research in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt: A preliminary report. Ancient Biomolecules, 3, 239–253.Google Scholar
  58. Green, R. (1991). The Lapita cultural complex: Current evidence and proposed models. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 11, 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Greenberg, J. (1949). Studies in African linguistic classification: II. The classification of Fulani. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 5(3), 190–198.Google Scholar
  60. Greenberg, J. (1963). The languages of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Groube, L., Chappell, J., Muke, J., & Price, D. (1986). A 40,000 year-old human occupation site at Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. Nature, 324(6096), 453–455. doi: 10.1038/324453a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gueye, N. S. (1998). Poteries et peuplements de la Moyen Vallée du Fleuve Sénégal du XVIe au XXe siècles: Approaches ethnoarchéologique et ethnohistorique. Thèse de doctorat, Nanterre: Université de Paris X.Google Scholar
  63. Hassan, H. Y., Underhill, P. A., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Ibrahim, M. E. (2008). Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: Restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137(3), 316–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Henn, B. M., Botigué, L. R., Gravel, S., Wang, W., Brisbin, A., Byrnes, J. K., Comas, D., et al. (2012). Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports Back-to-Africa migrations. PLoS Genetics, 8(1), e1002397–e1002397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hertzberg, M., Mickleson, K. N., Serjeantson, S. W., Prior, J. F., & Trent, R. J. (1989). An Asian-specific 9-bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA is frequently found in Polynesians. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 44(4), 504–510.Google Scholar
  66. Hiernaux, J. (1975). People of Africa. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.Google Scholar
  67. Ingram, C. J. E., Elamin, M. F., Mulcare, C. A., Weale, M. E., Tarekegn, A., Raga, T. O., Swallow, D. M., et al. (2007). A novel polymorphism associated with lactose tolerance in Africa: Multiple causes for lactase persistence? Human Genetics, 120(6), 779–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ingram, C. J. E., Mulcare, C. A., Itan, Y., Thomas, M. G., & Swallow, D. M. (2009). Lactose digestion and the evolutionary genetics of lactase persistence. Human Genetics, 124(6), 579–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Irish, J. (1998). Dental morphological affinities of Late Pleistocene through recent sub-Saharan and North African peoples. Bulletins et Memoires de la Societé d'Anthropologie de Paris, nouvelle serie, 10, 237–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Irish, J. (2000). The Iberomaurusian enigma: North African progenitor or dead end? Journal of Human Evolution, 39(4), 393–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Irish, J. (2005). Population continuity versus discontinuity revisited: Dental affinities among Late Paleolithic through Christian-era Nubians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 128, 520–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Itan, Y., Jones, B. L., Ingram, C. J. E., Swallow, D. M., & Thomas, M. G. (2010). A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10(1), 36–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jodin, A. (1966). Bijoux et amulettes du Maroc Punique. Bulletin d'Archéologie Marocaine, 6, 55–90.Google Scholar
  74. Kéfi, R., Stevanovitch, A., Bouzaid, E., & Béraud-Colomb, E. (2005). Diversité mitochondriale de la population de Taforalt (12.000 ans BP - Maroc): Une approche génétique a l'étude du peuplement de l'Afrique du nord. Anthropologie. International Journal of the Science of Man, 43(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  75. Karafet, T. M., Mendez, F. L., Meilerman, M. B., Underhill, P. A., Zegura, S. L., & Hammer, M. F. (2008). New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree. Genome Research, 18(5), 830–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Karafet, T. M., Osipova, L. P., Gubina, M. A., Posukh, O. L., Zegura, S. L., & Hammer, M. F. (2002). High levels of Y-chromosome differentiation among native Siberian populations and the genetic signature of a boreal hunter-gatherer way of life. Human Biology, 74(6), 761–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kayser, M., Brauer, S., Weiss, G., Schiefenhövel, W., Underhill, P., Shen, P., Stoneking, M., et al. (2003). Reduced Y-chromosome, but not mitochondrial DNA, diversity in human populations from West New Guinea. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 72(2), 281–302. doi: 10.1086/346065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kayser, M., Lao, O., Saar, K., Brauer, S., Wang, X., Nürnberg, P., Stoneking, M., et al. (2008). Genome-wide analysis indicates more Asian than Melanesian ancestry of Polynesians. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(1), 194–198. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Keita, S. O. Y. (2005). Physical anthropology and African history. In J. E. Philips (Ed.), Writing African history. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  80. Keita, S. O. Y., Jackson, F. L. C., Borgelin, L. F. J., & Maglo, K. N. (2010). Letter to the editor: Commentary on the Fulani—History, genetics, and linguistics, an adjunct to Hassan et al., 2008. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141(4), 665–667.Google Scholar
  81. Kimura, R., Ohashi, J., Matsumura, Y., Nakazawa, M., Inaoka, T., Ohtsuka, R., Tokunaga, K., et al. (2008). Gene flow and natural selection in oceanic human populations inferred from genome-wide SNP typing. [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25(8), 1750–1761. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msn128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kirch, P. V. (1991). Prehistoric exchange in Western Melanesia. Annual Review of Anthropology, 20(1), 141–165. doi: 10.1146/ Scholar
  83. Kirch, P. V. (1997). The Lapita peoples: Ancestors of the Oceanic world. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  84. Kirch, P. V. (2002). On the road of the winds: An archaeological history of the Pacific Islands before European contact. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  85. Kivisild, T., Shen, P., Wall, D. P., Do, B., Sung, R., Davis, K., Oefner, P. J., et al. (2006). The role of selection in the evolution of human mitochondrial genomes. Genetics, 172(1), 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kyburz, O. (1994). Les hierarchies socials et leurs fondements idéologiques chez les hal-pulaar'en (Senegal). Thèse de doctorat, Université de Parix X- UMR116.Google Scholar
  87. Lam, A. M. (2003). De l'origine Egyptienne des Peuls. Montreal: Editions Hurtubise HML Ltee.Google Scholar
  88. Leavesley, M. G., Bird, M. I., Fifield, L. K., Hausladen, P. A., Santos, G. M., & di Tada, M. L. (2002). Buang Merabak: Early evidence for human occupation in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Australian Archaeology, 54, 55–57.Google Scholar
  89. Lokki, A. I., Järvelä, I., Israelsson, E., Maiga, B., Troye-Blomberg, M., Dolo, A., et al. (2011). Lactase persistence genotypes and malaria susceptibility in Fulani of Mali. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 9–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. MacDonald, K. (1999). Invisible pastoralists: An inquiry into the origins of nomadic pastoralism in the West African Sahel. In C. Gosden & J. Hather (Eds.) The prehistory of food: Appetites for change. (pp. 326–341): New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  91. MacDonald, K., & MacDonald, R. H. (2000). The origins and development of domesticated animals in arid West Africa. In R. M. Blench & K. C. MacDonald (Eds.), The origins and development of African livestock (pp. 127–162). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  92. MacDonald, K. C. (1994). Socio-economic diversity and the origins of cultural complexity along the Middle Niger (2000 BC to AD 300). Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Ph.D. dissertation.Google Scholar
  93. MacDonald, K. C., Vernet, R., Martinon-Torres, M., & Fuller, D. Q. (2009). Dhar Néma: From early agriculture to metallurgy in southeastern Mauritania. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 44(1), 3–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. MacEachern, S. (2000). Genes, tribes, and African history. Current Anthropology, 41(3), 357–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Malhi, R. S., Breece, K. E., Shook, B. A. S., Kaestle, F. A., Chatters, J. C., Hackenberger, S., & Smith, D. G. (2004). Patterns of mtDNA diversity in northwestern North America. Human Biology, 76(1), 33–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Manni, F., Leonardi, P., Barakat, A., Rouba, H., Heyer, E., Klintschar, M., Quintana-Murci, L. S., et al. (2002). Y-chromosome analysis in Egypt suggests a genetic regional continuity in Northeastern Africa. Human Biology, 74(5), 645–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Manning, K. (2008). Mobility, climate change and cultural development: A revised view from the Lower Tilemsi Valley, Northeastern Mali. Oxford: University of Oxford. Ph.D. dissertation.Google Scholar
  98. Manning, K. (2011). The first herders of the West African Sahel. In H. Jousse & J. Lesur (Eds.), People and animals in Holocene Africa. Frankfurt: Africa Magna Verlag.Google Scholar
  99. Mbow, M. A. (1997). Les amas coquilliers du delta du Sénégal: Etude ethno-archéologique. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Paris I, Pantheon-Sorbonne.Google Scholar
  100. McIntosh, R. J. (1993). The Pulse Model: Genesis and accommodation of specialization in the Middle Niger. The Journal of African History, 34(2), 181–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McIntosh, R. J., McIntosh, S. K., & Bocoum, H. (2012). Seeking the origins of Takrur: Excavations and survey in the Middle Senegal Valley. New Haven: Yale University Publications in Anthropology.Google Scholar
  102. McIntosh, S. K., & Bocoum, H. (2000). New perspectives in Sincu Bara, a first millennium site in the Senegal Valley. African Archaeological Review, 17(1), 1–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Melton, T., Peterson, R., Redd, A. J., Saha, N., Sofro, A. S., Martinson, J., & Stoneking, M. (1995). Polynesian genetic affinities with Southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNA analysis. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 57(2), 403–414.Google Scholar
  104. Merriwether, D. A., Friedlaender, J. S., Mediavilla, J., Mgone, C., Gentz, F., & Ferrell, R. E. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA variation is an indicator of Austronesian influence in Island Melanesia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 110(3), 243–270. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199911)110:3<243::AID-AJPA1>3.0.CO;2-M.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Munson, P. (1971). The Tichitt Tradition: A late prehistoric occupation of the Southwestern Sahara. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  106. Murdock, G. (1959). Africa: Its peoples and their culture history. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  107. Murray, S., & Deme, A. (in press). Early agro-pastoralism in the Middle Senegal Valley: The botanical remains from Walaldé. In D.Q. Fuller and M.A. Murray (Eds.) Flora , past cultures and archaeobotany in Africa. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  108. Norris, H. T. (1986). The Arab conquest of the Western Sahara: Studies of the historical events, religious beliefs and social customs which made the remotest Sahara a part of the Arab world. Essex: Longman.Google Scholar
  109. Oppenheimer, S. J., & Richards, M. (2001). Polynesian origins. Slow boat to Melanesia? Nature, 410(6825), 166–167. doi: 10.1038/35065520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ottoni, C. (2008). Holocene human peopling of Libyan Sahara-Molecular analysis of maternal lineages in ancient and extant populations of Fezzan. Retrieved from
  111. Paris, F. (1996). Les sépultures du Sahara nigérien du néolithique à l'islamisation; coutumes funéraires, chronologie, civilisations. Paris: IRD.Google Scholar
  112. Paris, F. (2000). African livestock remains from Saharan mortuary contexts. In R. M. Blench & K. C. MacDonald (Eds.), The origins and development of African livestock (pp. 111–126). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  113. Pawley, A. (2000). The chequered career of the Trans New Guinea phylum: Recent historical research and its implications. Papuan pasts: Investigations into the cultural, linguistic and biological history of the Papuan speaking peoples. Australian National University.Google Scholar
  114. Pawley, A., & Ross, M. (1993). Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history. Annual Review of Anthropology, 22, 425–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Petit-Maire, N. (1979). Le Sahara atlantique à l'Holocène. Peuplement et écologie. Alger: C.R.A.P.E.Google Scholar
  116. Pierson, M. J., Martinez-Arias, R., Holland, B. R., Gemmell, N. J., Hurles, M. E., & Penny, D. (2006). Deciphering past human population movements in Oceania: Provably optimal trees of 127 mtDNA genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23(10), 1966–1975. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ponsich, M. (1967). Nécropoles phéniciennes de la région de Tanger. Tanger: Editions Marocaines.Google Scholar
  118. Redd, A. J., & Stoneking, M. (1999). Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 65(3), 808–828. doi: 10.1086/302533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Redd, A. J., Takezaki, N., Sherry, S. T., McGarvey, S. T., Sofro, A. S., & Stoneking, M. (1995). Evolutionary history of the COII/tRNALys intergenic 9 base pair deletion in human mitochondrial DNAs from the Pacific. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 12(4), 604–615.Google Scholar
  120. Ribot, I. (2011). A study through skull morphology on the diversity of Holocene African populations in a historical perspective. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
  121. Roberts, R., Jones, J. P., & Smith, M. (1995). Beyond the radiocarbon barrier in Australian prehistory. Antiquity, 68, 611–616.Google Scholar
  122. Robinson, D. (1971). Abdul Bokar Kan and the history of Futa Toro, 1853–1891. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  123. Robinson, D. (1975). Chiefs and clerics: Abdul Bokar Kan and Futa Toro, 1853–1891. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  124. Roncière, C. de la (1925). Découverte de L'Afrique au Moyen Age: Cartographes et explorateurs. La Société Royale De Géographie D'Egypte.Google Scholar
  125. Rosa, A., & Brehm, A. (2011). African human mtDNA phylogeography at-a-glance. Journal of Anthropological Sciences, 89, 1–34.Google Scholar
  126. Rosa, A., Brehm, A., Kivisild, T., Metspalu, E., & Villems, R. (2004). MtDNA Profile of West Africa Guineans: Towards a better understanding of the Senegambia Region. Annals of Human Genetics, 68(4), 340–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rosa, A., Ornelas, C., Jobling, M. A., Brehm, A. N., & Villems, R. (2007). Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: A multiethnic perspective. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 124–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ross, M. (2005). Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages. In A. Pawley, R. Attenborough, R. Hide, & J. Golson (Eds.), Papuan pasts: Cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra.Google Scholar
  129. Ruiz-Pesini, E., Lott, M. T., Procaccio, V., Poole, J. C., Brandon, M. C., Mishmar, D., Wallace, D. C., et al. (2007). An enhanced MITOMAP with a global mtDNA mutational phylogeny. Nucleic Acids Research, 35 (Database issue), D823–D828. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sadr, K. (1991). The development of nomadism in ancient Northeast Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  131. Scheinfeldt, L., Friedlaender, F., Friedlaender, J., Latham, K., Koki, G., Karafet, T., Lorenz, J., et al. (2006). Unexpected NRY chromosome variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23(8), 1628–1641. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Scheinfeldt, L. B., Soi, S., & Tishkoff, S. A. (2010). Colloquium paper: Working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(2), 8931–8938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schultz, E. A. (1984). From Pagan to Pullo: Ethnic identity change in Northern Cameroon. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 54(1), 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Scott, G. R., & Turner, C.G. (1997). The anthropology of modern human teeth: Dental morphology and its variation in recent human populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Scozzari, R., Torroni, A., Semino, O., Sirugo, G., Brega, A., & Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S. (1988). Genetic studies on the Senegal population. I. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 43(4), 534–544.Google Scholar
  136. Semino, O., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S., Falaschi, F., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Underhill, P. A. (2002). Ethiopians and Khoisan share the deepest clades of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 70(1), 265–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Simoons, F. J. (1971). The antiquity of dairying in Asia and Africa. Geographical Review, 61(3), 431–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Smith, A. (1979). Biogeographical consideration of colonization of the lower Tilemsi Valley in the second millennium BC. Journal of Arid Environments, 2, 355–361.Google Scholar
  139. Smith, A. (2005). African herders. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  140. Smith, A. C. (2012). Mobility and urbanism in Mali's Inland Niger Delta. Paper delivered at 21st Biennial Meetings of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists, June 21–23, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  141. Soares, P., Achilli, A., Semino, O., Davies, W., Macaulay, V., Bandelt, H.-J. R., Richards, M. B., et al. (2010). The archaeogenetics of Europe. Current Biology, 20(4), R174–R183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Soares, P., Rito, T., Trejaut, J., Mormina, M., Hill, C., Tinkler-Hundal, E., Richards, M. B., et al. (2011). Ancient voyaging and Polynesian origins. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 88(2), 239–247. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Spedini, G., Destro-Bisol, G., Mondovì, S., Kaptué, L., Taglioli, L., & Paoli, G. (1999). The peopling of sub-Saharan Africa: The case study of Cameroon. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 110(2), 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Spriggs, M. (1997). The island Melanesians. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  145. Spriggs, M. (2011). Archaeology and the Austronesian expansion: Where are we now? Antiquity, 85, 510–528.Google Scholar
  146. Stenning, D. J. (1959). Savannah nomads: A study of the Wodaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu Province Northern Region. Nigeria: LIT Verlag Münster.Google Scholar
  147. Stoneking, M., Jorde, L. B., Bhatia, K., & Wilson, A. C. (1990). Geographic variation in human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea. Genetics, 124(3), 717–733.Google Scholar
  148. Summerhayes, G., & Oxford University, P. (2007). Island Melanesian pasts: A view from archaeology. Genes, language, and culture history in the Southwest Pacific. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  149. Swift, J. (1979). The economics of production and exchange in West African pastoral societies. In M. Adamu & A. H. M. Kirk-Greene (Eds.), Pastoralists of the West African Savanna. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  150. Tauxier, L. (1937). Moeurs et histoire des Peuls. Paris: Fayot.Google Scholar
  151. Terrell, J. (1988). History as a family tree, history as an entangled bank: Constructing images and interpretations of prehistory in the South Pacific. Antiquity, 62, 642–657.Google Scholar
  152. Thiaw, I. (1999). Archaeological investigations of long-term culture change in the lower Falemme (Upper Senegal Region): A.D. 500–1900. Ph.D. dissertation, Rice University, Houston, Texas.Google Scholar
  153. Tishkoff, S. A., Reed, F. A., Friedlaender, F. R., Ehret, C., Ranciaro, A., Froment, A., Williams, S. M., et al. (2009). The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans. Science, 324(5930), 1035–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tishkoff, S. A., Reed, F. A., Ranciaro, A., Voight, B. F., Babbitt, C. C., Silverman, J. S., Deloukas, P., et al. (2007). Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics, 39(1), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Underhill, P. A., & Kivisild, T. (2007). Use of Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA population structure in tracing human migrations. Annual Review of Genetics, 41, 539–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Underhill, P. A., Passarino, G., Lin, A. A., Shen, P., Mirazon Lahr, M., Foley, R. A., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., et al. (2001). The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations. Annals of Human Genetics, 65(Pt. 1), 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Underhill, P. A., Shen, P., Lin, A. A., Jin, L., Passarino, G., Yang, W. H., et al. (2000). Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nature Genetics, 26(3), 358–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human Mutation, 30(2), E386–E394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Veeramah, K. R., Connell, B. A., Pour, N. A., Powell, A., Plaster, C. A., Zeitlyn, D., Thomas, M. G., et al. (2010). Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10(1), 92–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Vernet, R. (1993). Préhistoire de la Mauritanie. Nouakchott: Sépia.Google Scholar
  161. Vernet, R. (2001). Un habitat de l’Age du cuivre (2500 BP) de la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie occidentale): Imbich-Est. Sahara, 12, 83–90.Google Scholar
  162. Watson, E., Bauer, K., Rashid, A., Weiss, G., von Haessler, A., & Pääbo, S. (1996). mtDNA sequence diversity in Africa. American Jurnal of Human Genetics, 59, 437–444.Google Scholar
  163. Watson, E., Forster, P., Richards, M., & Bandelt, H. J. (1997). Mitochondrial footprints of human expansions in Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 61(3), 691–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. White, J., Allen, J., & Specht, J. (1988). Peopling the Pacific: The Lapita Homeland Project. Australian Natural History, 22, 410–416.Google Scholar
  165. Wollstein, A., Lao, O., Becker, C., Brauer, S., Trent, R. J., Nurnberg, P., Kayser, M., et al. (2010). Demographic history of Oceania inferred from genome-wide data. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Current Biology, 20(22), 1983–1992. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.10.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wurm, S. A. (1967). Linguistics and the prehistory of the South-Western Pacific. The Journal of Pacific History, 2, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wylie, A. (2002). Rethinking unity as a "working hypothesis" for philosophy of science. Thinking from things: Essays in the philosophy of archaeology (pp. 200–210). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations