African Archaeological Review

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 61–75 | Cite as

Explanation of the Pattern of P49a,f TaqI RFLP Y-Chromosome Variation in Egypt

  • S. O. Y. KeitaEmail author


The possible factors involved in the generation of the p49a,f TaqI Y-chromosome spatial diversity in Egypt are explored. The object is to consider explanations beyond those that emphasize gene flow mediated via military campaigns within the Nile corridor during the dynastic period. Current patterns of the most common variants (V, XI, IV) have been suggested to relate to Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom political actions in Nubia, including sometimes settler colonization, and the conquest of Egypt by Napata (in upper Nubia, northern Sudan) that initiated Dynasty XXV. Other events or processes have not been presented. However, a synthesis of evidence from archaeology, historical linguistics, texts, the distribution of haplotypes outside of Egypt, and some demographic considerations, lends greater support to the establishment, before the Middle Kingdom, of the observed distributions of the most prevalent haplotypes: V, XI, and IV. It is suggested that the pattern of diversity for these variants in the Egyptian Nile Valley, was largely the product of population events that occurred in the late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene through Dynasty I, and was sustained by continuous smaller scale bi-directional migrations/interactions. The higher frequency of V in Ethiopia than in Nubia or upper (southern) Egypt, has to be taken into account in any discussion of variation in the Nile Valley, especially in the context of the findings of historical linguistics.

Les facteurs possibles qui etaient parmi la generation de p49a,f TaqI Y-divers chromosome spatiale en Egypte, avaient ete explores. L’objectif etait de prendre en consideration les explications autour de celles qui mettaient l’accent sur le gene flow qui avait ete medie a partir des campagnes militaries dans le corridor du Nil, pendant la periode dynastique. Les modeles courants des varieties communes (V, XI, IV) avaient ete suggeres pour qu’ils soient en lien avec les actes politiques du Royaume Moyen et du Royaume Nouveau de Nubie, inclu quelques colonies, et la conquete de l’Egypte par Napta (en Haut Nubie, au Nord du Soudan), cela avait initie la 25eme dynastie. D’autres evenements ou procedures, n’avaient pas ete presentes. Ainsi, une synthese d’evidence de l’archeologie, de langues historiques, de textes, la distribution des haplotypes en dehors de l’Egypte, et quelques considerations demographiques avaient servi de grand support a l’etablissement, avant le Royaume Moyen, des distributions observees des varietes les plus prevalents: V, XI, and IV. Il est suggere que le modele de diversite pour ces varieties dans la Vallee du Nil Egyptien, etait largement le produit des evenements populaires qui s’etaient passes dans la derniere periode du Pleistocene au Moyen-Holocene jusqu’a la Premiere Dynastie, et etait soutenu par de petites echelles continue de demi-migrations/interactions directional. La plus grande frequence de V en Ethiopie qu’en Nubie ou plus haut, au Sud de l’Egypte, doit etre prise en considerartion dans n’importe quelle discussion de variation dans la Vallee du Nil, speciallement dans le contexte des decouvertes de langues historiques.

Key words

Egypt predynastic neolithic Y-chromosome p49a,f TaqAfroasiatic Nilosaharan Sahara Nubia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Human Genome Center, Howard University Cancer Center# 615Howard University HospitalDistrict of Columbia

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