European Journal of Ageing

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 311–321 | Cite as

Depression statuses and related predictors in later life: A 10-year follow-up study in Israel

  • Rabia KhalailaEmail author


The aim of the current study was to investigate the factors associated with depression statuses in a 10-year follow-up of community-dwelling older adults in Israel. Longitudinal data were used from the Israeli sample of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, assessing the depressive symptoms in 1042 respondents, aged 50 or above, at three time points: 2004/2005 (Wave I); 2009/2010 (Wave II); and 2014/2015 (Wave III). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the relationships among explanatory variables and depression statuses (no-depression, intermittent depression, or persistent depression). Some 46.5 % of the participants suffered from intermittent or persistent depression. Five factors were associated with increasing the probability of both intermittent and persistent depression: being female, unemployed, less educated, physically disabled, and in poor health. Five other explanatory variables were associated only with a higher risk for persistent depression: low family income, widowhood, physical inactivity, more than two chronic diseases, and cognitive dysfunction. According to these findings, depression is common among older people in Israel. Low socio-economic status and poor subjective and physical health are significant determinants of depression statuses over time, underlining the importance of taking measures to improve these conditions in order to reduce the risk of depression in old age.


Depression symptoms Longitudinal study Socio-economic resources Health-related factors Persistent depression 


  1. Alexopoulos G (2005) Depression in the elderly. Lancet 365:1961–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida OP, Pfaff JJ (2005) Depression and smoking amongst older general practice patients. J Affect Disord 86(2–3):317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball K, Burton NW, Brown WJ (2009) A prospective study of overweight, physical activity, and depressive symptoms in young women. Obesity 17(1):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron-Epel O, Kaplan G, Haviv-Messika A, Tarabeia J, Green MS, Kaluski DN (2005) Self-reported health as a cultural health determinant in Arab and Jewish Israelis: MABAT—national health and nutrition survey 1999–2001. Soc Sci Med 61:1256–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard JR, Tracy M, Vlahov D, Galea S (2008) Trajectory and socioeconomic predictors of depression in a prospective study of residents of New York City. Ann Epidemiol 18(3):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beekman AT, Copeland JR, Prince MJ (1999) Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. Br J Psychiatry 174:307–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blay SL, Fillenbaum GG, Marinho V, Andreoli SB, Gastal FL (2011) Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older Brazilians with diabetes. J Affect Disord 134(1–3):77–84. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.05.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blazer DG (2003) Depression in late life: review and commentary. J Gerontol A 58(3):249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Braam AW, Prince MJA, Beekman TF, Delespaul P, Dewey ME, Geerlings SW et al (2005) Physical health and depressive symptoms in older Europeans. Results from EURODEP. Br J Psychiatry 187:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buber I, Engelhadt H (2011) The association between age and depressive symptoms among older men and women in Europe. Findings from SHARE. Comp Popul Stud 36(1):103–126Google Scholar
  11. Byers AL, Vittinghoff E, Lui L, Hoang T, Blazer DG, Covinsky KE et al (2012) Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(10):1073–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castro-Costa E, Dewey M, Stewart R, Banerjee S, Huppert F, Mendonca-Lima C et al (2007) Prevalence of depressive symptoms and syndromes in later life in ten European countries: the SHARE study. Br J Psychiatry 191:393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang-Quan H, Zheng-Rong W, Yong-Hong L, Yi-Zhou X, Qing-Xiu L (2010) Education and risk for late life depression: a meta analysis of published literature. Int J Psychiatry Med 40(1):109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiao C, Weng L, Botticello AL (2011) Social participation reduces depressive symptoms among older adults: an 18-year longitudinal analysis in Taiwan. BMC Public Health 11:292. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cole MG, Dendukuri N (2003) Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 160(6):1147–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cruwys T, Dingle GA, Haslam C, Haslam SA, Jetten J, Morton TA (2013) Social group memberships protect against future depression, alleviate depression symptoms and prevent depression relapse. Soc Sci Med 98:179–186. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dewey ME, Prince MJ (2005) Mental Health. In: Börsch-Supan A, Jürges H (eds) Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe—First Results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. MEA Eigenverlag, Mannheim, pp 108–117Google Scholar
  18. Dines P, Hu W, Sajatovic M (2014) Depression in later-life: an overview of assessment and management. Psychiatr Danub 26:178–184Google Scholar
  19. Djernes JK (2006) Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 113(5):372–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duivis H, de Jonge P, Penninx BW, Na BY, Cohen BE, Whooley MA (2011) Depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and subsequent inflammation in patients with coronary heart disease: prospective findings from the heart and soul study. Am J Psychiatry 168(9):913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunlop DD, Lyons JS, Manheim LM, Song J, Chang RW (2004) Arthritis and heart disease as risk factors for major depression: the role of functional limitation. Med Care 42:502–5011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gale CR, Aihie Sayer A, Cooper C, Dennison EM, Starr JM, Whalley LJ et al (2011) Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people: the HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme. Psychol Med 41(10):2057–2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaugler JE, Duval S, Anderson KA, Kane RL (2007) Predicting nursing home admission in the U.S: a meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr 7:13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-7-13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Geerlings SW, Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, van Tilburg W (2000) Physical health and the onset and persistence of depression in older adults: an eight-wave prospective community-based study. Psychol Med 30(2):369–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glass TA, De Leon CM, Bassuk SS, Berkman LF (2006) Social engagement and depressive symptoms in late life: longitudinal findings. J Aging Health 18(4):604–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Han B, Jylha M (2006) Improvement in depressive symptoms and changes in self-rated health among community-dwelling disabled older adults. Aging Ment Health 10(6):599–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hong S, Hasche L, Bowland S (2009) Structural relationships between social activities and longitudinal trajectories of depression among older adults. Gerontologist 49(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang J, Wong R, Chen C, Mao I, Huang C, Chang W et al (2011) Trajectory of depression symptoms and related factors in later life–a population based study. J Affect Disord 133(3):499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jang S, Cho S, Chang J, Boo K, Shin H, Lee H et al (2009a) Employment status and depressive symptoms in Koreans: results from a baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Gerontol B 64(5):677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jang S, Kawachi I, Chang J, Boo K, Shin H, Lee H et al (2009b) Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA). Soc Sci Med 69(11):1608–1615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaplan G, Glasser S, Murad H, Atamna A, Alpert G, Goldbourt et al (2010) Depression among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population-based study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 45(10):931–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Katz S, Downs TD, Cash HR, Grotz RC (1970) Progress in development of the index of ADL. Gerontologist 10(1):20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, Rush AJ, Walters EE, Wang PS (2003) The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289(23):3095–3105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khalaila R, Litwin H (2014) Changes in health behaviors and their associations with depressive symptoms among Israelis aged 50 and older. J Aging Health 26(3):401–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ku P, Fox KR, Chen L, Chou P (2012) Physical activity and depressive symptoms in older adults: 11-year follow-up. Am J Prev Med 42(4):355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lorant V, Deliège D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M (2003) Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 157(2):98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mechakra-Tahiri DS, Dube M, Zunzunegui MV, Preville M, Berbiche D, Brassard J (2013) Pattern of change of depressive disorder over a one year period among community dwelling older adults in Quebec. Depress Res Treat. doi: 10.1155/2013/451708 Google Scholar
  38. Melchior M, Chastang J, Head J, Goldberg M, Zins M, Nabi H et al (2013) Socioeconomic position predicts long-term depression trajectory: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study. Mol Psychiatry 18(1):112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miech AR, Shanahan MJ (2000) Socioeconomic status and depression over the life course. JHSB 41(2):162–176Google Scholar
  40. Miller ME, Rejeski WJ, Reboussin BA, Ten Have TR, Ettinger WH (2000) Physical activity, functional limitations, and disability in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 48(10):1264–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Montagnier D, Dartigues JF, Rouillon F, Peres K, Falissard B, Onen F (2014) Aging and trajectories of depressive symptoms in community dwelling men and women. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 29:720–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Na’amnih W, Muhsen K, Tarabeia J, Saabneh A, Green MS (2010) Trends in the gap in life expectancy between Arabs and Jews in Israel between 1975 and 2004. Int J Epidemiol 39:1324–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oakes JM, Rossi PH (2003) The measurement of SES in health research: current practice and steps toward a new approach. Soc Sci Med 56(4):769–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Okun BS, Friedlander D (2005) Educational stratification among Arabs and Jews in Israel: Historical disadvantage, discrimination, and opportunity. Pop Stud-J Demogr 59(2):163–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paluska SA, Schwenk TL (2000) Physical activity and mental health: current concepts. Sports Med 29:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Paterson HD, Warburton DE (2010) Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada’s physical activity guidelines. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7(11):38. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-38 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Deeg DJ, Wallace RB (1998) Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons. JAMA 279(21):1720–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Prince MJ, Reischies F, Beekman AT, Fuhrer R, Jonker C, Kivela SL et al (1999) Development of the EURO-D scale–a European, Union initiative to compare symptoms of depression in 14 European centres. Br J Psychiatry 174:330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schoevers RA, Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, Geerlings MI, Jonker C, Van Tilburg W (2000) Risk factors for depression in later life; results of a prospective community based study (AMSTEL). J Affect Disord 59(2):127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singh G, Jackson CA, Dobson A, Mishra GD (2014) Bidirectional association between weight change and depression in mid-aged women: a population—based longitudinal study. Int J Obes 38(4):591–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Strawbridge WJ, Deleger S, Roberts RE, Kaplan GA (2002) Physical activity reduces the risk of subsequent depression for older adults. Am J Epidemiol 156(4):328–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sutin AR, Terracciano A, Milaneschi Y, An Y, Ferrucci L, Zonderman AB (2013) The trajectory of depressive symptoms across the adult life span. JAMA Psychiatry 70(8):803–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Taylor MG, Lynch SM (2004) Trajectories of decline, social support, and depressive symptoms in later life. J Gerontol B 59(4):S238–S246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Teychenne M, Ball K, Salmon J (2008) Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review. Prev Med 46(5):397–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Walsemann KM, Gee GC, Geronimus AT (2009) Ethnic differences in trajectories of depressive symptoms: disadvantage in family background, high school experiences, and adult characteristics. J Health Soc Behav 50(1):82–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilkins CH, Mathews J, Sheline YI (2009) Late life depression with cognitive impairment: evaluation and treatment. Clin Interv Aging 4:51–57Google Scholar
  57. Yang Y (2007) Is old age depressing? Growth trajectories and cohort variations in late-life depression. J Health Soc Behav 48(1):16–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yang Y, George LK (2005) Functional disability, disability transitions, and depressive symptoms in late life. J Aging Health 17:263–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nursing DepartmentZefat Academic CollegeZefatIsrael

Personalised recommendations