Acta Mechanica Sinica

, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 991–1000 | Cite as

Flapping dynamics of a flexible propulsor near ground

  • Jaeha Ryu
  • Sung Goon Park
  • Boyoung Kim
  • Hyung Jin Sung
Research Paper


The flapping motion of a flexible propulsor near the ground was simulated using the immersed boundary method. The hydrodynamic benefits of the propulsor near the ground were explored by varying the heaving frequency (St) of the leading edge of the flexible propulsor. Propulsion near the ground had some advantages in generating thrust and propelling faster than propulsion away from the ground. The mode analysis and flapping amplitude along the Lagrangian coordinate were examined to analyze the kinematics as a function of the ground proximity (d) and St. The trailing edge amplitude (\(a_\mathrm{tail}\)) and the net thrust (\(\overline{{F}}_x\)) were influenced by St of the flexible propulsor. The vortical structures in the wake were analyzed for different flapping conditions.


Flexible propulsor Ground effect Immersed boundary method Mode analysis 



This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (Grant 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).


  1. 1.
    Webb, P.W.: The effect of solid and porous channel walls on steady swimming of steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. Exp. Biol. 178, 97–108 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blake, R.W.: The energetics of hovering in the mandarin fish (synchropus picturatus). J. Exp. Biol. 82, 25–33 (1979)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baudinette, R.V., Schmidt-Nielsen, K.: Energy cost of gliding flight in herring gulls. Nature 248, 83–84 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rayner, J.M.V.: On the aerodynamics of animal flight in ground effect. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 334, 119–128 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blake, R.W.: Mechanics of gliding birds with special reference to the influence of ground effect. J. Biomech. 16, 649–654 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hainsworth, F.R.: Induced drag savings from ground effect and formation flight in brown pelicans. J. Exp. Biol. 135, 431–444 (1988)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nowroozi, B.N., Strother, J.A., Horton, J.M., et al.: Whole-body lift and ground effect during pectoral fin locomotion in the northern spearnose poacher ( agonopsis vulsa). J. Zool. 112, 393–402 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Park, H., Choi, H.: Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight. J. Exp. Biol. 213, 3269–3279 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tanida, Y.: Ground effect in flight. JSME Int. J. Ser. B. 44, 481–486 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Truong, T.V., Byun, D., Kim, M.J., et al.: Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect. Bioinspiration Biomim. 8, 036007 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blevins, E., Lauder, G.V.: Swimming near the substrate: a simple robotic model of stingray locomotion. Bioinspiration Biomim. 8, 016005 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iosilevskii, G.: Asymptotic theory of an oscillating wing section in weak ground effect. Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 27, 477–490 (2008)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Quinn, D.B., Lauder, G.V., Smits, A.J.: Flexible propulsors in ground effect. Bioinspiration Biomim. 9, 036008 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Peskin, C.S.: The immersed boundary method. Acta Numer. 11, 479–517 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu, L., Peskin, C.S.: Simulation of a flapping flexible filament in a flowing soap film by the immersed boundary method. J. Comput. Phys. 179, 452–468 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim, Y., Peskin, C.S.: Penalty immersed boundary method for an elastic boundary with mass. Phys. Fluids 19, 053103 (2007)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang, W.-X., Shin, S.J., Sung, H.J.: Simulation of flexible filaments in a uniform flow by the immersed boundary method. J. Comput. Phys. 226, 2206–2228 (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huang, W.-X., Sung, H.J.: An immersed boundary method for fluid-flexible structure interaction. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 198, 2650–2661 (2009)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhong, G., Sun, X.: New simulation strategy for an oscillating cascade in turbomachinery using immersed-boundary method. J. Propul. Power 25, 312–321 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim, S., Huang, W.-X., Sung, H.J.: Constructive and destructive interaction modes between two tandem flexible flags in viscous flow. J. Fluid Mech. 661, 511–521 (2010)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Uddin, E., Huang, W.-X., Sung, H.J.: Interaction modes of multiple flexible flags in a uniform flow. J. Fluid Mech. 729, 563–583 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Uddin, E., Huang, W.-X., Sung, H.J.: Actively flapping tandem flexible flags in a viscous flow. J. Fluid Mech. 780, 120–142 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhu, X., He, G., Zhang, X.: Numerical study on hydrodynamic effect of flexibility in a self-propelled plunging foil. Comput. Fluids 97, 1–20 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhu, X., He, G., Zhang, X.: Flow-mediated interactions between two self-propelled flapping filaments in tandem configuration. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 238105 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liao, C.-C., Lin, C.-A.: Simulation of natural and forced convection flows with moving embedded object using immersed boundary method. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 213–216, 58–70 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu, Y.Z., Kang, W., Sung, H.J.: Assessment of the organization of a turbulent separated and reattaching flow by measuring wall pressure fluctuations. Exp. Fluids 38, 485–493 (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nagendra, K., Tafti, D.K., Viswanath, K.: A new approach for conjugate heat transfer problems using immersed boundary method for curvilinear grid based solvers. J. Comput. Phys. 267, 225–246 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shin, S.J., Huang, W.-X., Sung, H.J.: Assessment of regularized delta functions and feedback forcing schemes for an immersed boundary method. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 58, 263–286 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim, K., Baek, S.-J., Sung, H.J.: An implicit velocity decoupling procedure for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 38, 125–138 (2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Quinn, D.B., Lauder, G.V., Smits, A.J.: Scaling the propulsive performance of heaving flexible panels. J. Fluid Mech. 738, 250–267 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Park, T.S., Sung, H.J.: Development of a near-wall turbulence model and application to jet impingement heat transfer. Int. J. Heat Fluid Fl. 22, 10–18 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaeha Ryu
    • 1
  • Sung Goon Park
    • 1
  • Boyoung Kim
    • 1
  • Hyung Jin Sung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations