Skip to main content
Log in

Design and analysis of the cross-linked dual helical micromixer for rapid mixing at low Reynolds numbers

  • Research Paper
  • Published:
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

We demonstrated rapid and stable fluid micromixing at low Reynolds numbers in an easily fabricated and geometrically simple three-dimensional cross-linked dual helical (CLDH) micromixer. Mixing mechanism of the CLDH channels was investigated with numerical simulations. The split and recombine (SAR), chaotic advection, and flow impact mixing effects were integrated and improved in the passive mixer with CLDH channels. A new SAR mixing effect dominated by flow collision was involved in the mixer in which a cycle of CLDH mixer can achieve two SAR mixing courses which is more effective than conventional SAR mixers. A geometric optimization method of studying the mass flow rate of flow streams was proposed to obtain the optimized structure, which can be applied to optimizing passive mixers with crossed or overlapped channels. The CLDH mixer shows a stable and excellent mixing capability in an extra short length for a wide low Re range; 99 % mixing degree can be achieved in four cycles (i.e., 320 μm) for 0.003 < Re < 30. This rapid and robust micromixer will contribute to a flexible application in microfluidic systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Azimi SM, Nixon G, Ahern J, Balachandran W (2011) A magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification microfluidic device. Microfluid Nanofluid 11(2):157–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhagat AAS, Peterson ET, Papautsky I (2007) A passive planar micromixer with obstructions for mixing at low Reynolds numbers. J Micromech Microeng 17(5):1017–1024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bian H, Liu H, Chen F et al (2012) Versatile route to gapless microlens arrays using laser-tunable wet-etched curved surfaces. Opt Express 20(12):12939–12948

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bottausci F, Cardonne C, Meinhart C, Mezić I (2007) An ultrashort mixing length micromixer: the shear superposition micromixer. Lab Chip 7(3):396–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cerbelli S, Garofalo F, Giona M (2008) Steady-state performance of an infinitely fast reaction in a three-dimensional open Stokes flow. Chem Eng Sci 63(17):4396–4411

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen H, Meiners JC (2004) Topologic mixing on a microfluidic chip. Appl Phys Lett 84(12):2193–2195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen F, Shan C, Liu K et al (2013) Process for the fabrication of complex three-dimensional microcoils in fused silica. Opt Lett 38(15):2911–2914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chin CD, Laksanasopin T, Cheung YK et al (2011) Microfluidics-based diagnostics of infectious diseases in the developing world. Nat Med 17(8):1015–1019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chung CK, Shih TR, Chen TC, Wu BH (2008) Mixing behavior of the rhombic micromixers over a wide Reynolds number range using Taguchi method and 3D numerical simulations. Biomed Microdevices 10(5):739–748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fang WF, Yang JT (2009) A novel microreactor with 3D rotating flow to boost fluid reaction and mixing of viscous fluids. Sens Actuators B Chem 140(2):629–642

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Fang WF, Hsu MH, Chen YT et al (2011) Characterization of microfluidic mixing and reaction in microchannels via analysis of cross-sectional patterns. Biomicrofluidics 5(1):014111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • He S, Chen F, Liu K, Yang Q et al (2012) Fabrication of three-dimensional helical microchannels with arbitrary length and uniform diameter inside fused silica. Opt Lett 37(18):3825–3827

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong CC, Choi JW, Ahn CH (2004) A novel in-plane passive microfluidic mixer with modified Tesla structures. Lab Chip 4(2):109–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jani JM, Wessling M, Lammertink RGH (2011) Geometrical influence on mixing in helical porous membrane microcontactors. J Membr Sci 378(1):351–358

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jeong GS, Chung S, Kim CB, Lee SH (2010) Applications of micromixing technology. Analyst 135(3):460–473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson TJ, Ross D, Locascio LE (2002) Rapid microfluidic mixing. Anal Chem 74(1):45–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim DS, Lee SH, Kwon TH, Ahn CH (2005) A serpentine laminating micromixer combining splitting/recombination and advection. Lab Chip 5(7):739–747

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee SW, Lee SS (2008) Rotation effect in split and recombination micromixing. Sens Actuators B Chem 129(1):364–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee K, Kim C, Shin KS et al (2007) Fabrication of round channels using the surface tension of PDMS and its application to a 3D serpentine mixer. J Micromech Microeng 17(8):1533–1541

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lim TW, Son Y, Jeong YJ, Yang DY, Kong HJ, Lee KS, Kim DP (2011) Three-dimensionally crossing manifold micro-mixer for fast mixing in a short channel length. Lab Chip 11(1):100–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu RH, Stremler MA, Sharp KV et al (2000) Passive mixing in a three-dimensional serpentine microchannel. J Microelectromech Syst 9(2):190–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu K, Yang Q, He S et al (2013) A high-efficiency three-dimensional helical micromixer in fused silica. Microsyst Technol 19(7):1033–1040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Long M, Sprague MA, Grimes AA, Rich BD, Khine M (2009) A simple three-dimensional vortex micromixer. Appl Phys Lett 94(13):133501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MacInnes JM, Vikhansky A, Allen RWK (2007) Numerical characterisation of folding flow microchannel mixers. Chem Eng Sci 62(10):2718–2727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nimafar M, Viktorov V, Martinelli M (2012) Experimental investigation of split and recombination micromixer in confront with basic T-and O-type micromixers. Int J Mech Appl 2(5):61–69

    Google Scholar 

  • Qu P, Chen F, Liu H et al (2012) A simple route to fabricate artificial compound eye structures. Opt Express 20(5):5775–5782

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • SadAbadi H, Packirisamy M, Wüthrich R (2013) High performance cascaded PDMS micromixer based on split-and-recombination flows for lab-on-a-chip applications. RSC Adv 3(20):7296–7305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schönfeld F, Hessel V, Hofmann C (2004) An optimised split-and-recombine micro-mixer with uniform ‘chaotic’ mixing. Lab Chip 4(1):65–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shih TR, Chung CK (2008) A high-efficiency planar micromixer with convection and diffusion mixing over a wide Reynolds number range. Microfluid Nanofluid 5(2):175–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stroock AD, Dertinger SKW, Ajdar A, Mezić I, Stone HA, Whitesides GM (2002) Chaotic mixer for microchannels. Science 295(5555):647–651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Therriault D, White SR, Lewis JA (2003) Chaotic mixing in three-dimensional microvascular networks fabricated by direct-write assembly. Nat Mater 2(4):265–374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tofteberg T, Skolimowski M, Andreassen E, Geschke O (2010) A novel passive micromixer: lamination in a planar channel system. Microfluid Nanofluid 8(2):209–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verma MK, Ganneboyina SR, Rakshith RV, Ghatak A (2008) Three-dimensional multihelical microfluidic mixers for rapid mixing of liquids. Langmuir 24(5):2248–2251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xia HM, Wan SYM, Shu C et al (2005) Chaotic micromixers using two-layer crossing channels to exhibit fast mixing at low Reynolds numbers. Lab Chip 5(7):748–755

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xia HM, Shu C, Wan SYM, Chew YT (2006) Influence of the Reynolds number on chaotic mixing in a spatially periodic micromixer and its characterization using dynamical system techniques. J Micromech Microeng 16(1):53–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang Z, Matsumoto S, Goto H, Matsumoto M, Maeda R (2001) Ultrasonic micromixer for microfluidic systems. Sens Actuators A 93(3):266–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yasui T, Omoto Y, Osato K, Kaji N, Suzuki N, Naito T, Watanabe M, Okamoto Y, Tokeshi M, Shamoto E, Baba Y (2011) Microfluidic baker’s transformation device for three-dimensional rapid mixing. Lab Chip 11(19):3356–3360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Y, Hu Y, Wu H (2012) Design and simulation of passive micromixers based on capillary. Microfluid Nanofluid 13(5):809–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Science Foundation of China under the Grant Nos. 61176113 and 51335008, the Special-funded program on national key scientific instruments and equipment development of China under the Grant No. 2012YQ12004706 and collaborative innovation center of Suzhou nano science and technology in China.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Qing Yang or Feng Chen.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 7513 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 580 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (AVI 692 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (AVI 1049 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, K., Yang, Q., Chen, F. et al. Design and analysis of the cross-linked dual helical micromixer for rapid mixing at low Reynolds numbers. Microfluid Nanofluid 19, 169–180 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-015-1558-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-015-1558-4

Keywords

Navigation