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Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 887–894 | Cite as

Thread-based microfluidic system for detection of rapid blood urea nitrogen in whole blood

  • Yu-An Yang
  • Che-Hsin Lin
  • Yi-Chi Wei
Research Paper

Abstract

This study develops a thread-based microfluidic device with variable volume injection capability and 3-dimensional (3D) detection electrodes for capillary electrophoresis electrochemical (CE–EC) detection of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in whole blood. A poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrate with concave 3D electrodes produced by the hot embossing method is used to enhance the sensing performance of the CE–EC system. Results show that the chip with 3D sensing electrodes exhibits a measured current response nine times higher and signal-to-noise ratio five times higher when compared to the peak responses obtained using a chip with conventional 2D sensing electrodes. In addition, the developed thread-based microfluidic system is capable of injecting variable sample volumes into the separation thread simply by wrapping the injection thread different numbers of times around the separation thread. The peak S/N ratio can be further enhanced with this simple approach. Results also indicate that the CE–EC system exhibits good linear dynamic range for detecting a urea sample in concentrations from 0.1 to 10.0 mM (R 2 = 0.9848), which is suitable for adoption in detecting the BUN concentration in human blood (1.78–7.12 mM). Separation and detection of the ammonia ions converted from BUN in whole blood is successfully demonstrated in the present study, with the developed thread-based microfluidic system providing a low-cost, high-performance method for detecting BUN in human blood.

Keywords

Blood urea nitrogen Thread-based microfluidic system Variable volume injection Capillary electrophoresis Whole blood 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical EngineeringNational Sun Yat-sen UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan, ROC

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