EcoHealth

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 386–398 | Cite as

Amphibian Pathogens in Southeast Asian Frog Trade

  • Martin Gilbert
  • David Bickford
  • Leanne Clark
  • Arlyne Johnson
  • Priscilla H. Joyner
  • Lucy Ogg Keatts
  • Kongsy Khammavong
  • Long Nguyễn Văn
  • Alisa Newton
  • Tiffany P. W. Seow
  • Scott Roberton
  • Soubanh Silithammavong
  • Sinpakhone Singhalath
  • Angela Yang
  • Tracie A. Seimon
Original Contribution

Abstract

Amphibian trade is known to facilitate the geographic spread of pathogens. Here we assess the health of amphibians traded in Southeast Asia for food or as pets, focusing on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), ranavirus and general clinical condition. Samples were collected from 2,389 individual animals at 51 sites in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Singapore for Bd screening, and 74 animals in Cambodia and Vietnam for ranavirus screening. Bd was found in one frog (n = 347) in Cambodia and 13 in Singapore (n = 419). No Bd was found in Lao PDR (n = 1,126) or Vietnam (n = 497), and no ranavirus was found in Cambodia (n = 70) or Vietnam (n = 4). Mild to severe dermatological lesions were observed in all East Asian bullfrogs Hoplobatrachus rugolosus (n = 497) sampled in farms in Vietnam. Histologic lesions consistent with sepsis were found within the lesions of three frogs and bacterial sepsis in two (n = 4); one had Gram-negative bacilli and one had acid-fast organisms consistent with mycobacterium sp. These results confirm that Bd is currently rare in amphibian trade in Southeast Asia. The presence of Mycobacterium-associated disease in farmed H. rugolosus is a cause for concern, as it may have public health implications and indicates the need for improved biosecurity in amphibian farming and trade.

Keywords

Amphibian trade Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Chytrid Ranavirus Pathogens Mycobacterium Southeast Asia Laos Cambodia Vietnam Singapore 

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Copyright information

© International Association for Ecology and Health 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Gilbert
    • 1
  • David Bickford
    • 2
  • Leanne Clark
    • 1
  • Arlyne Johnson
    • 1
  • Priscilla H. Joyner
    • 1
  • Lucy Ogg Keatts
    • 1
  • Kongsy Khammavong
    • 1
  • Long Nguyễn Văn
    • 1
  • Alisa Newton
    • 1
  • Tiffany P. W. Seow
    • 2
  • Scott Roberton
    • 1
  • Soubanh Silithammavong
    • 1
  • Sinpakhone Singhalath
    • 3
  • Angela Yang
    • 1
  • Tracie A. Seimon
    • 1
  1. 1.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore
  3. 3.Department of BiologyNational University of LaosVientianeLao People’s Democratic Republic

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