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Primary social factors and smoking in Korean adolescents

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The present study aimed to examine the effects of primary social factors on the smoking behaviors according to the smoking stages—initiation and continuation—among Korean adolescents.

Subject and methods

We used the clustered logistic regression method to examine whether the primary social factors significantly influence smoking behaviors among Korean adolescents at two different stages with a cross-sectional study for 9 years.


We found that primary social factors significantly influenced adolescent smoking in both stages, and peer effects for adolescent smoking were much clearer in the smoking continuation stage. In addition, adolescents initiating smoking early tend to continue their smoking with high probability.


The impacts of primary social factors are robust on adolescent smoking, particularly in the smoking continuation stage.

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Correspondence to Amy M. Kwon.

Ethics declarations

The study subjects in the present study were a part of KNHANES, which is an ongoing nationwide epidemiology study conducted by the division of Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health and Welfare. All participants signed written informed consent forms, and the study was approved by institutional review board.

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All authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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All authors listed meet the authorship criteria according to the lastest guidelines of the international Committee of Medical Journal Editors and all authors are in agreement with the manuscript.

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Lee, E., Kwon, A.M. Primary social factors and smoking in Korean adolescents. J Public Health (Berl.) 30, 1251–1256 (2022).

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