Table 1 shows the details of the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. The majority of the participants were male (58.4%), and the most frequent age group was 20–29 years (40.7%), with an average age of 33 years. The majority of the respondents were from Erbil (58.8%), and about 63% of them had a university education, with the highest number being government employees (41.7%). The respondents considered curfew to be the best way to fight coronavirus (22.9%) used by Kurdistan government, followed by quarantine (21.2%), closing of road between cities and even inside cities (17%), hospital preparation (15%), use of thermal cameras (12.6%), and checkpoints (11.4%).The average income level was 726,000 Iraqi dinars.
Table 2 shows the level of depression about COVID19. The highest level of participants in the survey (88.14% with a mean score of 4.17) were depressed because of people's lack of knowledge about how to protect themselves from the virus, followed by false information from different types of media (85.90%), the lack of a vaccine even though they have tried to find drugs (80.20%), different novel or explanation (72.26%), and they became a robot to know the final information (50.04%) about COVID-19.
Table 3 shows responses related to anxiety about COVID-19. The issues of shopping and contact with infected people caused the highest level of anxiety (97% with mean score of 4.62) followed by financial problems (97%), shortages of cleansing items and foods in the bazaar (93.8%), their families becoming infected (87.6%), lack of proper hygiene maintenance (86.7%) and so on, while the issue casuing them least anxiety was being in quarantine (30.5%).
Table 4 shows a significant association between gender, age, and place of residency and anxiety (p-value: 0.001, 0.006, 0.008), and a significant association between gender, marital status, and education level and depression (p-value: 0.03, 0.03, 0.04 ). However, there is a non-significant association between marital status, level of education, occupation, and income and anxiety as (p-value: 0.165, 0.448, 0.456, 0.836); there is also a non-significant association between age, place of residency,occupation, and income and depression (p-value: 0.175, 0.44, 0.363, 0.446).
Data were expressed as mean, SD (standard deviation). Independent Sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were tests used to a comparison between demographic characteristics with the score of depression and anxiety, * p < 0.05.