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The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on the Mental Health of Pregnant Women Residing in Slum Areas: A Cross-Sectional Study



Intimate partner violence is one of the most common types of violence, and the association between intimate partner violence and mental health has serious implications for public health. This article aimed at investigating the impact of IPV on the mental health of pregnant women who reside in slum areas.


A group of 456 women living in slum areas was investigated. The Conflict Tactics Scale was used to measure the respondent’s experience of different types of IPV during the past year. General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to measure the likelihood that an individual had a psychiatric disorder.


A total of 456 pregnant women aged ≥ 20 years were interviewed using a shortened version of the Conflict Tactics Scale and the General Health Questionnaire. All types of intimate partner violence were found to be associated with various mental health problems (p < 0.05). Overall, physical (AOR: 3.61; 95% CI 2.11–6.17) and sexual (AOR: 1.72; 95% CI 1.01–2.94) violence increased the odds of probable psychiatric disorders in victims compared with their counterparts who had not experienced such types of violence.


Further research is needed on the relationship between intimate partner violence and other mental health problems, protocols to screen for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings, and supportive services.

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This research was conducted under the auspices of the larger research project "The Effect of Preventive Intimate Partner Violence Interventions for Mental Health Promotion among Pregnant Women in Slum Areas of Hamadan." The authors acknowledge the Health Center Office workers who allowed the study to be conducted in their service centers and pregnant women provided assistance during the course of data collection.


The study was supported by the Management and Education Officers of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (grant no. IR.UMSHA.REC.1396.478).

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Correspondence to Shayesteh Jahanfar.

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Ezzati- Rastegar, K., Moeini, B., Rezapur-Shahkolai, F. et al. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on the Mental Health of Pregnant Women Residing in Slum Areas: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Public Health (Berl.) 30, 353–359 (2022).

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  • Intimate partner violence
  • Mental health
  • Pregnant women
  • Slum