Psychological distress is associated with decreased quality of life. The nutritional factor is one of the most important for mental well-being.
Subjects and methods
The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between dairy food intake and psychological distress. In this cross-sectional study, data on the dietary food intake of 4763 participants were collected using a validated FFQ. Also, the Iranian validated version of the GHQ was used to screen psychological distress.
Individuals in the highest tertile of total dairy food intake were less likely to have psychological distress (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70–0.91, P = 0.04) in the final adjusted model. At stratified analysis based on sex, the same findings were obtained only among women. Inversely, individuals in the highest category of high-fat dairy intake had greater odds of suffering from psychological distress (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07–1.83, P = 0.01). Also, higher intake of high-fat dairy was significantly associated with greater odds of psychological distress among women in models stratified by sex. However, we found a marginally significant inverse association between higher intake of low-fat dairy and psychological distress risk (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69–1.01, P = 0.07). This association was not significant among men and women in a stratified analysis based on sex.
The result showed dairy intake is associated with psychological distress. Further studies are required to confirm these associations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adibi P (2012) The study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health and nutrition (SEPAHAN): overview of methodology. J Res Med Sci 17:S292–S298
Akbari F, Azadbakht L (2014) A systematic review on diet quality among Iranian youth: focusing on reports from Tehran and Isfahan. Arch Iran Med 17:574–584
Alonso A, Beunza JJ, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA (2005) Low-fat dairy consumption and reduced risk of hypertension: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 82:972–979
Atkins J, Naismith SL, Luscombe GM, Hickie IB (2013) Psychological distress and quality of life in older persons: relative contributions of fixed and modifiable risk factors. Bmc Psychiatr 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-13-249
Camfield DA, Owen L, Scholey AB, Pipingas A, Stough C (2011) Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing. Brit J Nutrit 106:159–174. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511000158
Crichton GE, Murphy KJ, Bryan J (2010) Dairy intake and cognitive health in middle-aged South Australians. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19:161–171
Da Silva MS, Rudkowska I (2015) Dairy nutrients and their effect on inflammatory profile in molecular studies. Mol Nutr Food Res 59:1249–1263. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400569
de Souza RJ et al. (2015) Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies Bmj-Brit Med J 351. https://doi.org/10.1136/Bmj.H3978
Ghasemian A (2014) National and sub-national burden of chronic diseases attributable to lifestyle risk factors in Iran 1990–2013; study protocol. Arch Iran Med 17:146–158
Ginter E, Simko V (2016) New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids. Bratislavske lekarske listy 117:251–253
Gonzalez S, Duncan SE, O’Keefe SF, Sumner SS, Herbein JH (2003) Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles. J Dairy Sci 86:70–77. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73585-1
Hagan KA, Wu T, Rimm EB, Eliassen AH, Okereke OI (2015) Phobic anxiety and plasma levels of global oxidative stress in women. Eur J Psychiatr 29:7–20. https://doi.org/10.4321/S0213-61632015000100001
Haghighatdoost F (2016) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and common psychological disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 103:201–209. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.105445
Hajian S (2016) Positive effect of antioxidants on immune system. Immunopathologia Persa 1
Hill DR, Newburg DS (2015) Clinical applications of bioactive milk components. Nutr Rev 73:463–476. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv009
Hosseinzadeh M (2016) Empirically derived dietary patterns in relation to psychological disorders. Public Health Nutr 19:204–217. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001500172X
Hsieh CC, Hernandez-Ledesma B, Fernandez-Tome S, Weinborn V, Barile D, de Moura Bell JM (2015) Milk proteins, peptides, and oligosaccharides: effects against the 21st century disorders. Biomed Res Int 2015:146840. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/146840
Huth PJ, Park KM (2012) Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence. Adv Nutrit 3:266–285. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002030
Hwang JY, Lee SE, Kim SH, Chung HW, Kim WY (2010) Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea. J Am Diet Assoc 110:779–785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.02.004
Kalantari N, Doaei S, Gordali M, Rahimzadeh G, Gholamalizadeh M (2016) The Association between dairy intake, simple sugars and body mass index with expression and extent of anger in female students. Iranian J Psychiatr 11:43–50
Keshteli A, Esmaillzadeh A, Rajaie S, Askari G, Feinle-Bisset C, Adibi P (2014) A dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: design and development. Int J Prevent Med 5:29–36
Lang UE, Beglinger C, Schweinfurth N, Walter M, Borgwardt S (2015) Nutritional aspects of depression. Cell Physiol Biochem:Int J Experiment Cell Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 37:1029–1043. https://doi.org/10.1159/000430229
Lim SY, Kim EJ, Kim A, Lee HJ, Choi HJ, Yang SJ (2016) Nutritional factors affecting mental health. Clin Nutrit Res 5:143–152. https://doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2016.5.3.143
Malekinejad H, Rezabakhsh A (2015) Hormones in dairy foods and their impact on public health—a narrative review article. Iran J Public Health 44:742–758
Mendoza C, Barreto GE, Avila-Rodriguez M, Echeverria V (2016) Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD. Mol Cell Endocrinol 434:266–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2016.05.016
Michaelsson K, Wolk A, Langenskiold S, Basu S, Warensjo Lemming E, Melhus H, Byberg L (2014) Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies. Bmj 349:g6015. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g6015
Mitchell AJ, Rao S, Vaze A (2011) Can general practitioners identify people with distress and mild depression? A meta-analysis of clinical accuracy. J Affect Disord 130:26–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.07.028
Morio B, Fardet A, Legrand P, Lecerf JM (2016) Involvement of dietary saturated fats, from all sources or of dairy origin only, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nutrit Rev 74:33–47. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv043
Oddo VM, Mabli J (2015) Association of participation in the supplemental nutrition assistance program and psychological distress. Am J Publ Heal 105:E30–E35. https://doi.org/10.2105/Ajph.2014.302480
Ozawa M et al (2014) Milk and dairy consumption and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 62:1224–1230. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12887
Pasin G, Comerford KB (2015) Dairy foods and dairy proteins in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Adv Nutr 6:245–259. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.114.007690
Perez-Cornago A, Zulet MA, Martinez JA (2015) Association between mood and diet quality in subjects with metabolic syndrome participating in a behavioural weight-loss programme: a cross-sectional assessment. Nutr Neurosci 18:137–144. https://doi.org/10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000116
Rahmati Najarkolaei F, Raiisi F, Rahnama P, Gholami Fesharaki M, Zamani O, Jafari MR, Montazeri A (2014) Factor structure of the Iranian version of 12-item general health questionnaire. Iran Red Crescent Med J 16:e11794. https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.11794
Richard A, Rohrmann S, Vandeleur CL, Mohler-Kuo M, Eichholzer M (2015) Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: results from a population-based study. Bmc Psychiatr 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/S12888-015-0597-4
Russ TC, Kivimaki M, Morling JR, Starr JM, Stamatakis E, Batty GD (2015) Association between psychological distress and liver disease mortality: a meta-analysis of individual study. Participants Gastroenterology 148:958–U401. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.004
Saneei P, Hajishafiee M, Keshteli AH, Afshar H, Esmaillzadeh A, Adibi P (2016) Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults. Brit J Nutrit 116:335–342. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516001926
Seidel C, Deufel T, Jahreis G (2005) Effects of fat-modified dairy products on blood lipids in humans in comparison with other fats. Ann Nutrit Metab 49:42–48. https://doi.org/10.1159/000084176
Shahreza FD (2016) From oxidative stress to endothelial cell dysfunction. J Prevent Epidemiol 1
Sorouri M et al (2010) Functional bowel disorders in Iranian population using Rome III criteria Saudi. J Gastroenterol:Off J Saudi Gastroenterol Assoc 16:154–160. https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.65183
Sturgeon JA, Arewasikporn A, Okun MA, Davis MC, Ong AD, Zautra AJ (2016) The psychosocial context of financial stress: implications for inflammation and psychological health. Psychoso Med 78:134–143. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000276
Uemura M et al (2016) Association between psychological distress and dietary intake among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in a cross-sectional study: the Fukushima Health Management Survey. BMJ Open 6:e011534. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011534
Vaskonen T (2003) Dietary minerals and modification of cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutrit Biochem 14:492–506
The authors thank the staff and participants of SEPAHAN for their important contributions.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was approved by the regional bioethics committee of IUMS (Adibi 2012).
Springer Nature remains neutral regarding jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Miraghajani, M., Feizi, A., Esmaillzadeh, A. et al. The relationship between dairy food intake and psychological distress among Iranian adults: results from a large cross-sectional population-based study. J Public Health (Berl.) 27, 781–789 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-018-0994-5
- Dairy food intake
- High-fat dairy
- Low-fat dairy
- Psychological distress