Skip to main content

Crossing the wide gap between positive attitude towards blood donation and its poor practice among university students: can knowledge and demographic characteristics help?!



Egypt suffers from a continuing shortage of blood supply. University students constitute a significant portion of healthy potential blood donors. Due to lack of evidence, we investigated the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Minia University students with regard to blood donation.

Subjects and methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study which included 576 randomly selected students at Minia University, Egypt aged 20–25 years. A structured questionnaire assessed the KAP, with its related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for students’ KAP across different levels of sociodemographic characteristics.


While 65% of the students had positive attitude towards blood donation, 53% of the students had insufficient knowledge about blood donation, and only 35% of them had donated blood before. Age and residence were not significantly associated with KAP, while donors have a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) = 0.37 (0.26–0.54) for being female students versus being males. Studying public health was associated with knowledge and attitude, but not with practice of blood donation. A 1-point increment in knowledge score was associated with significantly 18 and 11% higher odds for having positive attitude and for being a donor respectively. However, the increased likelihood of donating created by having a positive attitude was insignificant.


There was a gap between attitude, on one hand, and knowledge and practice, on the other hand, of Egyptian university students with regard to blood donation. Collaborations between Ministries of Health and Education to facilitate and encourage blood donation practice for students at their place of study are required.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Ahmed Z, Zafar M, Khan AA, Anjum MU, Siddiqui MA (2014) Knowledge, attitude and practices about blood donation among undergraduate medical students in Karachi. J Infect Dis Ther 2:1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Johar AW, Al-Saud A, Abalkhail Y, Jawdat T, Al-Khamees S, Faisal A-T, Abdel-Gader AG (2016) Why do Saudi women refrain donating their blood?—a study on the attitude, belief and motivation of Saudi female university students towards blood donation. Clin Lab 62:771–779

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allain JP (2010) Volunteer safer than replacement donor blood: a myth revealed by evidence. Vox Sang 5:169–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allerson J (2012) Assessment of selected university students’ knowledge of blood donation and the relationship with intent to donate blood. PhD thesis, Minnesota State University

  • Baig M, Habib H, Haji AH, T Alsharief F, M Noor A, G Makki R (2013) Knowledge, misconceptions and motivations towards blood donation among university students in Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Sci 29:1295–1299

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Batiha MA, Albashtawy M (2013) Knowledge of Philadelphia University students regarding blood donation. Transfus Med 23:195–198

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • CAPMAS (2016) Annual statistical book of 2016 — Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. Available from:

  • Cunha BG, Dias MR (2008) Persuasive communications and regular blood donation: an experimental study. Cad Saude Publica 24:1407–1418

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias E, Mauka W, Philemon RN, Damian DJ, Mahande MJ, Msuya SE (2016) Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and factors associated with voluntary blood donation among university students in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. J Blood Transfus 2016:8546803.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hosain GM, Anisuzzaman M, Begum A (1997) Knowledge and attitude towards voluntary blood donation among Dhaka University students in Bangladesh. East Afr Med J 74:549–553

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kowsalya V, Vijayakumar R, Chidambaram R, Srikumar R, Reddy EP, Latha S, Fathima IG, Kumar CK (2013) A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India. Pak J Biol Sci 16:439–442

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lownik E, Riley E, Konstenius T, Riley W, McCullough J (2012) Knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys of blood donation in developing countries. Vox Sang 103:64–74

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mamatya A, Prajapati R, Yadav R (2013) Study on knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among students of different colleges of Kathmandu, Nepal. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 4:424–428

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirza H, Khan F, Naeem FJ, Ashraf B (2015) Blood safety and donation knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among 1st year medical students at LMDC, Lahore. Pak J Med Health Sci 9:992–994

    Google Scholar 

  • Mishra SK, Sachdev S, Marwaha N, Avasthi A (2016) Study of knowledge and attitude among college-going students toward voluntary blood donation from North India. J Blood Med 7:19–26

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Moftah F (2002) Regionalization of the blood transfusion service in Egypt. Vox Sang 83(s1):197–199

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed FH, Ashfaq T, Nanji K, Anjum Q, Lohar MI (2011) Knowledge and attitude towards voluntary blood donation among students of a private medical college. IDJP 20:273–277

    Google Scholar 

  • Mostafa M (2010) Psychographic clustering of blood donors in Egypt using Kohonen's self-organizing maps. Int J Nonprofit Volunt Sect Mark 15:157–171

    Google Scholar 

  • Mustafa MM, Abdelfattah EN, Al Rukban MO (2015) Attitude towards blood donation among university students. IJSBAR 19:82–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Nigatu A, Demissie DB (2014) Knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation and associated factors among Ambo University regular students, Ambo Town, Ethiopia. J Community Med Health Educ 4:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  • Norman G (2010) Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 15:625–632

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nwabueze SA, Nnebue CC, Azuike EC, Ezenyeaku CA, Aniagboso CC, Ezemonye OE, Azuike ED (2014) Perception of blood donation among medical and pharmaceutical science students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Open J Prev Med 4:515–522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raghuwanshi B, Pehlajani NK, Sinha MK (2016) Voluntary blood donation among students — a cross-sectional study on knowledge and practice vs. attitude. J Clin Diagn Res 10:EC18–EC22

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Riley W, Schwei M, McCullough J (2007) The United States’ potential blood donor pool: estimating the prevalence of donor-exclusion factors on the pool of potential donors. Transfusion 47:1180–1188

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Safizadeh H, Pourdamghan N, Mohamadi B (2009) University students awareness and attitude towards blood donation in Kerman city. IJBC 1:107–110

    Google Scholar 

  • Salaudeen AG, Odeh E (2011) Knowledge and behavior towards voluntary blood donation among students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 14:303–307

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shafei A (2013) Increasing blood donation in Egypt. Master thesis, American University in Cairo. Available at

  • Van den Burg PJ, Vrielink H, Reesink HW (1998) Donor selection: the exclusion of high risk donors? Vox Sang 74(s 2):499–502

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vásquez M, Ibarra P, Maldonado M (2007) Blood donation: knowledge and attitudes of a university population in Chile. Rev Panam Salud Publica 22:323–328 (Abstract) (Article in Spanish)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • WHO (2004) Global database on blood safety summary report 2001–2002. WHO Press, Geneva. Available from:

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO (2009) The Melbourne Declaration on 100% voluntary non-remunerated donation of blood and blood components. Available from:

  • WHO (2010) Towards 100% voluntary blood donation: a global framework for action. WHO Press, Geneva Available from:

    Google Scholar 

  • WHO (2011a) Blood Safety. Key global fact and figures in 2011. Fact Sheet N 279 / June. Available from:

  • WHO (2011b) Global database on blood safety summary report 2011–2002. WHO Press, Geneva. Available from:

  • WHO (2012) Blood donor selection: guidelines on assessing donor suitability for blood donation. WHO Press, Geneva Available from:

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiwanitkit V (2002) Knowledge about blood donation among a sample of Thai university students. Vox Sang 83:97–99

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to thank all the students who participated in the study.


This research did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ehab S. Eshak.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Minia University Research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all students included in the study.

Additional information

The original version of this article was revised: Due to miscommunication in the terms of using the first dataset, a correction to the list of authors is required: The family name of the third author should be Abd-El Rahman instead of Elareny.

Electronic supplementary material


(DOCX 41 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Eshak, E.S., Ghazawy, E.R., Abd-El Rahman, T.A. et al. Crossing the wide gap between positive attitude towards blood donation and its poor practice among university students: can knowledge and demographic characteristics help?!. J Public Health (Berl.) 27, 329–337 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • KAP
  • Cross-sectional
  • Voluntary non-remunerated blood
  • Egypt
  • University students