Journal of Public Health

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 163–169 | Cite as

Quality of implementation of the school health program in a rural district of Oyo State, Nigeria: a public-private comparison

  • Ayodeji Matthew AdebayoEmail author
  • Olutoyin O. Sekoni
  • Obioma C. Uchendu
  • Oludoyinmola Omobolade Ojifinni
  • Akinwumi Oyewole Akindele
  • Oluwaseun Stephen Adediran
Original Article



There is abundant evidence that the first and only School Health Policy (SHPo) in Nigeria was adopted in 2006, but no study has since evaluated the quality of implementation (QoI) in government and privately funded schools. This study was conducted to evaluate the QoI of the School Health Program (SHP) in public and private primary schools of a rural Local Government Area in Oyo State using the SHPo framework as a guide.

Subjects and methods

A comparative-descriptive cross-sectional design was chosen. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select 46 primary schools in a rural area: 30 public and 16 private. An observational checklist was used to assess the five domains of the SHP, namely: School Health Services (SHS), Skills Based Health Education (SBHE), School Feeding Services (SFS), Healthful School Environment (HSE) and School, Home and Community Relationship (SHCR), as listed in the Nigerian SHPo framework. QoI was assessed by exploring the availability, suitability and functionality of basic provisions for SHP implementation.


The majority of schools (90% public; 87.5% private) had first-aid boxes, but they had no contents in 23.3% of public and 68.8% of private schools. In only one private school was evidence of periodic medical inspection. A school meal service was present in 93.3% of public and 18.8% of private schools. Only one private school practiced medical screening. Some had gender-sensitive toilets (81.3% private; 33.3% public). None of the schools had evidence of pre-employment medical and routine screening for non-communicable diseases for staff. Overall, around 50% of schools had poor QoI of the SHP (63.3% public; 25.0% private).


QoI of the SHP in selected rural public and private primary schools was generally poor, but with better quality in private than public schools.


Quality of implementation School health program Rural public/private schools School health policy framework Nigeria 



The study was self-sponsored.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Ayodeji Adebayo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Olutoyin Sekoni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Obioma Uchendu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Oludoyinmola Ojifinni declares that she has no conflict of interest. Akinwumi Akindele declares that he has no conflict of interest. Oluwaseun Adediran declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the principal of each school.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication August/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayodeji Matthew Adebayo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Olutoyin O. Sekoni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Obioma C. Uchendu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Oludoyinmola Omobolade Ojifinni
    • 2
  • Akinwumi Oyewole Akindele
    • 2
  • Oluwaseun Stephen Adediran
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Community Medicine, College of MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Community MedicineUniversity College HospitalIbadanNigeria

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