Non-medical predictors for ever and current use of contraceptives among women in Minia, Upper Egypt

  • Ehab S Eshak
  • Sara I Sayed
  • Emad G Kamel
  • Mahmoud A El-Sheref
Original Article



The use of specific contraceptive methods is not only determined by women’s health status, but also by other factors. We aimed to investigate non-medical predictors for ever and current use of contraceptives in Upper Egypt.

Subjects and methods

A cross-sectional study of 1212 Egyptian women aged 18–45 years recruited from urban and rural health centers was carried out during the period from June to December 2015. A structured interview questionnaire assessed the practice of contraception, along with its non-medical predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for women’s ever and current use of contraceptives across different levels of non-medical predictors.


The proportion of women who had ever used contraceptives was 92%, while that for the current use of contraceptives was 54%. The injectable contraceptive was the most frequently ever-used method, while the IUD was the most frequently currently used method. The never users in this study were younger, and expressed more incorrect beliefs about contraceptives than ever or current users. The role played by non-medical predictors in determining currently used contraceptives varied: it was evident for the current use of IUDs, faint for the current use of birth control pills, and had no influence at all on the use of injectables or ‘other’ methods. On the other hand, most of the non-medical predictors were associated with the ever use of all contraceptive methods. The choice of the currently used method was attributed mainly to dissatisfaction with previously used methods due to complications.


Enlightened counselling about family planning should be encouraged at early stages in the family-building process, or even before that.


Contraceptive use Family planning Non-medical predictors Egypt 



The authors thank all workers in the health centers for their help in conducting this study.


This research did not receive any specific grants from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Minia University Research Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehab S Eshak
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sara I Sayed
    • 1
  • Emad G Kamel
    • 1
  • Mahmoud A El-Sheref
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of MedicineMinia UniversityMiniaEgypt
  2. 2.Public Health, Department of Social MedicineOsaka University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Medicine, Minia University and Public Health, Department of Social MedicineOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

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