Utilization of maternal health-care services by Muslim women in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, 2005–2007



Using the Demographic and Health Survey datasets from India (2005–2006), Bangladesh (2007) and Pakistan (2006–2007), this study attempts to analyze the factors associated with utilization of maternal health-care services among Muslim women residing in each country.

Subject and methods

Three crucial components of maternal health care were considered: women having four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits, deliveries conducted in a health facility, and deliveries conducted by a skilled health attendant (SBA). Descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression methods were applied to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes.


This study identified that the place of residence, a woman’s education, the partner’s education, respondent’s age at birth, birth order, and wealth quintile were significantly associated with the utilization of selected maternal health-care services. Muslim women in India were more likely to have at least four or more ANC visits and opt for the SBA care than in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Also, India performed better in extending medically facilitated delivery care compared to Bangladesh.


The programs and policies formulated for improving maternal health-care utilization need to be understood in depth across these countries. For example, factors associated with increasing uptake of maternal health care services among Muslim women in India may be understood in the context of strengthening the Health and Population Sector Program (HPSP) in Bangladesh, and intensification of maternal health care programs undertaken in Pakistan at the upzilla (sub-district) level.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Rajesh Kumar Rai.

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Rai, R.K. Utilization of maternal health-care services by Muslim women in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, 2005–2007. J Public Health 23, 37–48 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-014-0651-6

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  • Maternal healthcare
  • Muslim women
  • India
  • Bangladesh
  • Pakistan
  • Asia