Using the Demographic and Health Survey datasets from India (2005–2006), Bangladesh (2007) and Pakistan (2006–2007), this study attempts to analyze the factors associated with utilization of maternal health-care services among Muslim women residing in each country.
Subject and methods
Three crucial components of maternal health care were considered: women having four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits, deliveries conducted in a health facility, and deliveries conducted by a skilled health attendant (SBA). Descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression methods were applied to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes.
This study identified that the place of residence, a woman’s education, the partner’s education, respondent’s age at birth, birth order, and wealth quintile were significantly associated with the utilization of selected maternal health-care services. Muslim women in India were more likely to have at least four or more ANC visits and opt for the SBA care than in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Also, India performed better in extending medically facilitated delivery care compared to Bangladesh.
The programs and policies formulated for improving maternal health-care utilization need to be understood in depth across these countries. For example, factors associated with increasing uptake of maternal health care services among Muslim women in India may be understood in the context of strengthening the Health and Population Sector Program (HPSP) in Bangladesh, and intensification of maternal health care programs undertaken in Pakistan at the upzilla (sub-district) level.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aday LA, Andersen RM (1974) A framework for the study of access to medical care. Health Serv Res 9:208–220
Alagarajan M (2003) An analysis of fertility differentials by religion in Kerala state: a test of the interaction hypothesis. Popul Res Policy Rev 22:557–574
Bhutta ZA, Hafeez A, Rizvi A, Ali N, Khan A, Ahmad F, Bhutta S, Hazir T, Zaidi A, Jafarey SN (2013) Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in Pakistan: challenges and opportunities. Lancet 381:2207–2218
Bloom SS, Tsui AO, Plotkin M, Bassett S (2000) What husbands in northern India know about reproductive health: correlates of knowledge about pregnancy and maternal and sexual health. J Biosoc Sci 32:237–251
Chattopadhyay A (2012) Men in maternal care: evidence from India. J Biosoc Sci 44:129–153
Corsi DJ, Neuman M, Finlay JE, Subramanian SV (2012) Demographic and health surveys: a profile. Int J Epidemiol 41:1602–1613
Countdown 2008 Equity Analysis Group, Boerma JT, Bryce J, Kinfu Y, Axelson H, Victora CG (2008) Mind the gap: equity and trends in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health services in 54 Countdown countries. Lancet 371:1259–1267
Fotso JC (2006) Child health inequities in developing countries: difference across urban and rural areas. Int J Equity Health 5:9
Fotso JC (2007) Urban–rural differentials in child malnutrition: trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa. Health Place 13:205–223
Furuta M, Salway S (2006) Women’s position within the household as a determinant of maternal health care use in Nepal. Int Fam Plan Perspec 32:17–27
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International (2007) National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–06: India, vol I. IIPS, Mumbai
Magadi MA, Agwanda AO, Obare FA (2007) A comparative analysis of the use of maternal health services between teenagers and older mothers in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from demographic and health surveys (DHS). Soc Sci Med 64:1311–1325
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India (2011) Programme Evaluation of the Janani Suraksha Yojana. Gov. of India, New Delhi
Mohanty SK, Srivastava A (2013) Cost and utilisation of hospital based delivery care in empowered action group (EAG) states of India. Matern Child Health J 17:1441–1451
National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, and Macro International (2009) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007. National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, and Macro International; Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, MD
National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS), [Pakistan], and Macro International Inc (2008) Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006–07. National Institute of Population Studies and Macro International Inc, Islamabad, Pakistan
Rai RK (2014) Tracking women and children in a continuum of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child healthcare (RMNCH) in India. J Epidemiol Glob Health 4:239–243
Rai RK, Tulchinsky TH (2012) Addressing the sluggish progress in reducing maternal mortality in India. Asia Pac J Public Health. doi:10.1177/1010539512436883
Rai RK, Singh PK, Singh L (2012) Utilization of maternal health care services among married adolescent women: insights from the Nigeria demographic and health survey, 2008. Womens Health Issues 22:e407–e414
Rai RK, Singh PK, Kumar C, Parasuraman S (2013) Teenage childbearing: a growing public health concern in need of urgent policy and program action. J Public Health 21:379–384
Rai RK, Singh PK, Singh L, Kumar C (2014) Individual characteristics and use of maternal and child health services by adolescent mothers in Niger. Matern Child Health J 18:592–603
Retherford RD, Choe MK (1993) Statistical models for causal analysis. Wiley, New York
Singh R, Tripathi V (2013) Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study. Springerplus 2:284
Singh PK, Kumar C, Rai RK, Singh L (2013) Factors associated with maternal healthcare services utilization in nine high focus states in India: a multilevel analysis based on 14385 communities in 292 districts. Health Policy Plan. doi:10.1093/heapol/czt039
Statacorp (2007) Stata Statistical Software: Release 10. Statacorp, College Station, TX
Thaddeus S, Maine D (1994) Too far to walk: maternal mortality in context. Soc Sci Med 38:1091–1110
Villar J, Ba’aqeel H, Piaggio G, Lumbiganon P, Miguel Belizán J, Farnot U, Al-Mazrou Y, Carroli G, Pinol A, Donner A, Langer A, Nigenda G, Mugford M, Fox-Rushby J, Hutton G, Bergsjø P, Bakketeig L, Berendes H, Garcia J, WHO Antenatal Care Trial Research Group (2001) WHO antenatal care randomized trial for the evaluation of a new model of routine antenatal care. Lancet 357:1551–1564
World Health Organization (2004) Making pregnancy safer: the critical roles of the skilled attendant—a joint statement by WHO. ICM and FIGO, Geneva
World Health Organization (2014) Trends in maternal mortality, 1990 to 2013: estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA. The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division, Switzerland, Geneva
World Health Organization and UNICEF (2013) Accountability for maternal, newborn and child health: the 2013 update. WHO UNICEF, Geneva
World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, The World Bank (2006) Pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum and newborn care: a guide for essential practice. WHO UNICEF, Geneva
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Rai, R.K. Utilization of maternal health-care services by Muslim women in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, 2005–2007. J Public Health 23, 37–48 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-014-0651-6
- Maternal healthcare
- Muslim women