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Prevalence and factors associated with uncorrected presbyopia in a rural population of Japan: the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study



To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with uncorrected presbyopia among rural community dwellers in Japan.

Study design

A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among community dwellers aged 40–74 years who received specific health checkups in Minamiaizu and Tadami, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.


Uncorrected presbyopia was considered as when the distance-corrected visual acuity in the better eye was ≥0.5 and the near-presenting visual acuity in the better eye was <0.4, regardless of distance refractive status. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for uncorrected presbyopia and to adjust for possible confounders.


A total of 2054 individuals participated in the specific health checkups. In the 1156 individuals (response rate: 56.28%) analyzed in the study, the mean (SD) age was 63.0 (8.7) years, the percentage of women was higher (57.87%), and the prevalence of uncorrected presbyopia was 26.38% (95% CI 23.86%–29.03%). Multivariate analysis revealed that the factors associated with uncorrected presbyopia were older age (adjusted OR: 1.054 [95% CI: 1.034–1.075]), female sex (adjusted OR: 1.388 [95% CI: 1.006–1.915]), and distance-presenting vision impairment (adjusted OR: 2.651 [95% CI: 1.697–4.143]).


Approximately one-quarter of the participants in this study from a rural population of Japan did not have adequate near vision. It is recommended that a public health intervention should be enacted to correct presbyopia, especially in the older age group, women, and those with uncorrected refractive errors.

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This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan (19AA2007, 20AA2005, and 19FA1010) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (20H03907). The funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

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Correspondence to Koichi Ono.

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Y. Sadamatsu, None; K. Ono, None; Y. Hiratsuka, None; A. Takesue, None; T. Tano, None; M. Yamada, None; K. Otani, None; M. Sekiguchi, None; S. Konno, None; S. Kikuchi, None; S. Fukuhara, None; A. Murakami, None.

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Corresponding Author: Koichi Ono

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Sadamatsu, Y., Ono, K., Hiratsuka, Y. et al. Prevalence and factors associated with uncorrected presbyopia in a rural population of Japan: the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study. Jpn J Ophthalmol 65, 724–730 (2021).

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  • Presbyopia
  • Near-sightedness
  • Presenting visual acuity
  • Epidemiology