Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 231–236 | Cite as

Changes in refractive characteristics in Japanese children with Down syndrome

  • Junna Horio
  • Hiroki KanekoEmail author
  • Kei Takayama
  • Kinichi Tuzuki
  • Hiroko Kakihara
  • Miou Iwami
  • Yoshikatsu Kawase
  • Taichi Tsunekawa
  • Naoko Yamaguchi
  • Norie Nonobe
  • Hiroko Terasaki
Clinical Investigation



To investigate the refractive characteristics of Japanese children with Down syndrome.

Study design

Retrospective study.


The clinical records of refractive errors and ocular manifestations in children with Down syndrome who visited the Aichi Children’s Health and Medical Center between November 2001 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The children were divided into the 3 following groups depending on their age: group 1 (≤ 6 years), group 2 (7–12 years), and group 3 (13–19 years). The collection of refractive error data was performed only for the right eyes and only once for each child, when the children were last examined with their pupils dilated.


The study included 416 children (224 boys, 192 girls; average age, 6.1 ± 4.1 years). Group 3 had significantly stronger myopia than did groups 1 and 2. The mean cylindrical power in all the children was − 2.1 ± 1.2 diopters (D), and cylindrical power ≤ − 1.0 D (stronger than − 1.0 D) was seen in 366 eyes (88%). No significant difference in cylindrical power was found among the 3 groups.


The spherical equivalent refraction showed an age-dependent myopic shift. Given that the amount of astigmatism did not show age-dependent differences, the age-dependent myopic shift could be due mainly to the change in spherical power.


Down syndrome Refractive error Myopic shift Astigmatism 



The authors thank Drs Shu Kachi, Tadasu Sugita, Masatoshi Nagaya, and Yosuke Nagasaka for their important clinical suggestions and Ms Chisato Ishizuka for technical assistance. This work was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (to H.T., 15H04994); a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B (to H. Kaneko, 17K16963); the Chukyo Longevity Medical and Promotion Foundation (to H. Kaneko); the Takeda Medical Research Foundation (to H. Kaneko); the Takeda Science Foundation (to H. Kaneko); the Mishima Saiichi-Kinen Gankakenkyu Kokusaikouryu Kikin (to H. Kaneko); and the Itoh-Chubei Foundation (to H. Kaneko).

Author contributions

HK wrote the main manuscript. JH and HKaneko prepared the figures. JH, KT, and HK acquired the data. KT, TT, and NN analyzed the data. MI, YK, NY, NN, and HT worked on interpretation of the data and critical revision. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

J. Horio, None; H. Kaneko, None; K. Takayama, None; K. Tuzuki, None; H. Kakihara, None; M. Iwami, None; Y. Kawase, None; T. Tsunekawa, None; N. Yamaguchi, None; N. Nonobe, None; H. Terasaki, None.

Supplementary material

10384_2018_565_MOESM1_ESM.docx (54 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 54 kb)


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Copyright information

© Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junna Horio
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiroki Kaneko
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kei Takayama
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kinichi Tuzuki
    • 1
  • Hiroko Kakihara
    • 1
    • 4
  • Miou Iwami
    • 2
  • Yoshikatsu Kawase
    • 5
  • Taichi Tsunekawa
    • 2
  • Naoko Yamaguchi
    • 1
  • Norie Nonobe
    • 2
  • Hiroko Terasaki
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyAichi Children’s Health and Medical CenterObuJapan
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyNational Defense Medical CollegeTokorozawaJapan
  4. 4.Kakihara Eye ClinicToyohashiJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesAichi Shukutoku UniversityNagakuteJapan

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