Baseline data from a multicenter, 5-year, prospective cohort study of Japanese age-related macular degeneration: an AMD2000 report



To report research participants’ baseline characteristics in the AMD2000 study, a prospective, multicenter, 5-year, observational cohort study of Japanese age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The characteristics were determined using multimodal imaging.


Patients with AMD were recruited at 18 clinical sites in Japan between April 2006 and March 2009. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (Landolt chart), indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy with a contact lens, optical coherence tomography imaging, fundus photography, and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography.


Four hundred sixty participants (326 men [70.9%]) were included in the study. At enrollment, 131 eyes (28.5%) had hard drusen and 125 eyes (27.2%) had soft drusen in the macular area. A total of 455 eyes (98.9%) were diagnosed as having wet AMD, and 5 eyes (1.1%), as having dry AMD. Of the 455 eyes with wet AMD, 209 eyes (45.4%) had typical AMD, 228 eyes (49.6%) had polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and 18 eyes (3.9%) had retinal angiomatous proliferation. The size of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was significantly smaller with indocyanine green angiography than with fluorescein angiography (P < 0.001). Poor baseline visual acuity was associated with cystoid macular edema, older age, scar, extrafoveal macular edema, subfoveal CNV, large branching vascular network, and hard exudates.


Japanese patients with AMD are predominantly male, lack drusen, and have a high rate of PCV.

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We are grateful to all the patients and coinvestigators for their cooperation in the current study. A list of the participating research sites and investigators is given in the Appendix. The authors also thank the following additional investigators at the Translational Research Informatics Center (TRI) at the Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation for their contributions to this trial: Ms Emiko Uno for data management; Ms Yasuko Kimura for project management; and Dr Hideaki Kaneda, Dr Shinsuke Kojima, Mr Mikio Yoshidomi, and Dr Atsuhiko Kawamoto for manuscript review.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Akitaka Tsujikawa.

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Conflicts of Interest

A. Tsujikawa, Grant (Alcon, AMO Japan, Bayer, HOYA, Kowa, Novartis, Pfizer, Santen, Senju), Lecture fees (Alcon, AMO Japan, Bayer, Chugai, Kowa, Nidek, Novartis, Pfizer, Santen, Sanwa Kagaku, Senju); Y. Akagi-Kurashige, None; M. Yuzawa, Grant (Alcon Japan, Santen), Consultant fees (Alcon Japan, Astellas Pharma, Janssen Japan), Lecture fees (Astellas Pharma, Bausch & Lomb Japan, Bayer, Japan Focus Company, Novartis, Santen, Senju); T. Ishibashi, None; H. Nakanishi, None; E. Nakatani, None; S. Teramukai, Grant (Daiichi Sankyo), Consultant fee (Daiichi Sankyo, Sanofi, Solasia Pharma, Sysmex, Taiho Pharmaceutical), Lecture fees (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Fujifilm); M. Fukushima, None; N. Yoshimura, None.

Additional information

The members listed in the AMD2000 Study Group are given in Appendix.



Principal investigator: Nagahisa Yoshimura (Kyoto University Hospital).

Coprincipal investigator: Tatsuro Ishibashi (Kyushu University Hospital) and Mitsuko Yuzawa (Surugadai Nihon University Hospital).

Research sites and investigators: Sapporo City General Hospital, Hokkaido (Muneyasu Takeda, Hiroko Imaizumi, Utako Okushiba); Hirosaki University Hospital, Aomori (Mitsuru Nakazawa, Yukihiko Suzuki); Yamagata University Hospital, Yamagata (Hidetoshi Yamashita, Daijiro Tsuchiya); Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (Shoji Kishi, Ryo Mukai, Maki Takahashi, Taku Sato, Hidetaka Matsumoto); Tokyo Medical University Ibaraki Medical Center, Ibaraki (Masahiro Miura); Surugadai Nihon University Hospital, Tokyo (Mitsuko Yuzawa, Ryuzaburo Mori); Tokyo University Hospital, Tokyo (Yasuhiro Tamaki, Ryo Obata, Yasuo Yanagi); Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Takuya Iwasaki, Yasuyuki Yamauchi); Yokohama City University Medical Center, Kanagawa (Kazuaki Kadonosono, Maiko Inoue, Misa Suzuki); Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Shizuoka (Akira Obana); Fujita Health University Hospital, Aichi (Masayuki Horiguchi, Atsuhiro Tanikawa); Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Nagahisa Yoshimura, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Hideo Nakanishi, Yumiko Akagi-Kurashige, Kenji Yamashiro, Atsushi Otani, Hiroshi Tamura, Ayako Takahashi, Akio Oishi); Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Fumi Gomi, Miki Sawa); Osaka Medical College Hospital, Osaka (Tsunehiko Ikeda, Masahiro Minami); Kansai Medical University Hospital, Osaka (Kanji Takahashi); Kansai Medical University Takii Hospital, Osaka (Kenichiro Sho); Kobe University Hospital, Hyogo (Shigeru Honda); Kagoshima University Medical and Dental Hospital, Kagoshima (Taiji Sakamoto, Akiko Okubo).

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Tsujikawa, A., Akagi-Kurashige, Y., Yuzawa, M. et al. Baseline data from a multicenter, 5-year, prospective cohort study of Japanese age-related macular degeneration: an AMD2000 report. Jpn J Ophthalmol 62, 127–136 (2018).

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  • Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • Drusen
  • Multimodal imaging
  • International classification
  • Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy