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Evaluating internal and ocular residual astigmatism in Chinese myopic children



To investigate the nature of internal astigmatism (IA) and ocular residual astigmatism (ORA) in Chinese myopic children and to identify factors that may influence IA and ORA.


A total of 206 eyes of 206 myopic children (97 boys and 109 girls; 10.95 ± 2.2 years) were enrolled in this cross sectional study. Total ocular astigmatism (TOA), anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA), posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and total corneal astigmatism (TCA) were measured directly using either a Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor or a Pentacam. IA and ORA were calculated by Fourier vector analyses (the definitions of IA and ORA are: IA = TOA − ACA − PCA, ORA = TOA − ACA). Spearman or Pearson correlation was adopted to detect multiple factors that may influence IA and ORA, which were then predicted by linear regressions. Modified compensation factors were applied to evaluate the inter-relationship between corneal astigmatism and ORA.


While the mean values of IA and ORA were −0.52 DC × 94.8° and −0.63 DC × 93.0°, respectively, the percentage of ORA power over 1.00 D was as high as 28.64%. Full or under-compensation of ACA by ORA predominated in the enrolled subjects. The mean ORA J0 and J45 were −0.311 ± 0.236 and −0.032 ± 0.156 D, respectively, negatively correlated with the corresponding ACA components (J0: r = −0.276, J45: r = −0.616, p < 0.001). While age was not correlated with either IA or ORA (p > 0.1), the power of IA or ORA was correlated inversely with the axial length (IA: r = −0.193, p = 0.005; ORA: r = −0.169, p = 0.015) and positively with the spherical equivalent refraction (IA r = 0.195, p = 0.005; ORA r = 0.213, p = 0.002) and power of corneal astigmatism (IA-ACA: r = 0.302, IA-TCA: r = 0.368, ORA-ACA: r = 0.334, ORA-TCA: r = 0.293). Girls had larger IA powers than boys (0.741 ± 0.345 D vs 0.651 ± 0.340, p = 0.036).


Full or under-compensation of ACA by ORA is common in Chinese myopic children, and the compensation efficiency may decrease with age. Among Chinese children with myopia, a larger ORA is more prevalent with less myopia and greater corneal astigmatism.

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Thanks to Dr. Xi Wu and Dr. Yanling He for the design and technique support to the research. This research was supported by the Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission (No. Z131107002213127).

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Correspondence to Kai Wang.

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Y. Liu, None; Y. Cheng, None; Y. Zhang, None; L. Zhang, None; M. Zhao, None; K. Wang, None.

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Liu, Y., Cheng, Y., Zhang, Y. et al. Evaluating internal and ocular residual astigmatism in Chinese myopic children. Jpn J Ophthalmol 61, 494–504 (2017).

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  • Ocular residual astigmatism
  • Internal astigmatism
  • Myopia
  • Children