Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 316–319 | Cite as

Correlation between myopic ametropia and stereoacuity in school-aged children in Taiwan

  • Ju-Wen Yang
  • Tien-Yi Huang
  • Jiahn-Shing Lee
  • Ling Yeung
  • Yi-Fang Lin
  • Chi-Chin Sun
Clinical Investigation

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the correlation between stereoacuity, as analyzed by the Titmus stereotest, and the severity of myopia, astigmatism and anisometropia in a school-aged population in Taiwan.

Methods

Cycloplegic autorefraction, best corrected monocular visual acuity and stereoacuity were measured in 6- to 18-year-old school children. Children with amblyopia (best corrected visual acuity of <20/25) or strabismus were excluded from this study. The correlation between stereoacuity and the severity of myopia, astigmatism and anisometropia was analyzed by the Titmus stereotest.

Results

A total of 166 children (95 boys, 71 girls; mean age 10.75 years, range 6–18 years) with myopia or astigmatism were enrolled in the study. The mean spherical error was −2.22 ± 1.70 diopters (D) (range −0.25 to −9.50 D), and the mean astigmatism was −0.72 ± 0.89 (range 0 to −4.50) D. An anisometropia of >1.00 D and spherical anisometropia of >1.00 D were strongly associated with decreased stereoacuity on the Titmus stereotest (P < 0.001). Astigmatism was also correlated with the performance of stereopsis (P = 0.013).

Conclusion

Anisometropia (>1.00 D), spherical anisometropia (>1.00 D), and astigmatism were associated with reduced stereoacuity in school-aged children.

Keywords

Depth perception Myopia Astigmatism Refractive errors 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by CMRPG260391 from the Chang Gung Medical Research Foundation and NHRI-EX99-9725SC from the National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan.

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    van Ee R, Erkelens CJ. Stability of binocular depth perception with moving head and eyes. Vision Res. 1996;36:3827–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hong SW, Park SC. Development of distant stereoacuity in visually normal children as measured by the Frisby–Davis distance stereotest. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1186–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hrisos S, Clarke MP, Kelly T, Henderson J, Wright CM. Unilateral visual impairment and neurodevelopmental performance in preschool children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:836–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levy NS, Glick EB. Stereoscopic perception and Snellen visual acuity. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;78:722–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim SH, Plager DA. Stereopsis in children with unilateral pseudophakia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:333–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oguz H, Oguz V. The effects of experimentally induced anisometropia on stereopsis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2000;37:214–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen SI, Hove M, McCloskey CL, Kaye SB. The effect of monocularly and binocularly induced astigmatic blur on depth discrimination is orientation dependent. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:101–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujikado T, Morimoto T, Shimojyo H. Development of anisometropia in patients after surgery for esotropia. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2010;54:589–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    von Noorden GK, Avilla CW. Accommodative convergence in hypermetropia. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990;110:287–92.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mai GH. Stereoacuity and ametropia (in Chinese). Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 1993;29:280–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weakley DR Jr. The association between nonstrabismic anisometropia, amblyopia, and subnormal binocularity. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:163–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jamali P, Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Younesian M, Jafari A. Refractive errors and amblyopia in children entering school: Shahrood, Iran. Optom Vis Sci. 2009;86:364–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dobson V, Harvey EM, Miller JM, Clifford-Donaldson CE. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population. Optom Vis Sci. 2008;85:512–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kleinstein RN, Jones LA, Hullett S, Kwon S, Lee RJ, Friedman NE, et al. Refractive error and ethnicity in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1141–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robaei D, Rose K, Ojaimi E, Kifley A, Huynh S, Mitchell P. Visual acuity and the causes of visual loss in a population-based sample of 6-year-old Australian children. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1275–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murthy GV, Gupta SK, Ellwein LB, Munoz SR, Pokharel GP, Sanga L, et al. Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:623–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    He M, Zeng J, Liu Y, Xu J, Pokharel GP, Ellwein LB. Refractive error and visual impairment in urban children in southern China. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:793–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Naidoo KS, Raghunandan A, Mashige KP, Govender P, Holden BA, Pokharel GP. Refractive error and visual impairment in African children in South Africa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:3764–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Negrel AD, Maul E, Pokharel GP, Zhao J, Ellwein LB. Refractive error study in children: sampling and measurement methods for a multi-country survey. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129:421–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Logan NS, Gilmartin B. School vision screening, ages 5–16 years: the evidence-base for content, provision and efficacy. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004;24:481–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huynh SC, Wang XY, Ip J, Robaei D, Kifley A, Rose KA, et al. Prevalence and associations of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in a population based sample of 6 year old children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:597–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Farbrother JE. Spectacle prescribing in childhood: a survey of hospital optometrists. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:392–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leske DA, Holmes JM. Maximum angle of horizontal strabismus consistent with true stereopsis. J AAPOS. 2004;8:28–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ju-Wen Yang
    • 1
  • Tien-Yi Huang
    • 2
  • Jiahn-Shing Lee
    • 3
  • Ling Yeung
    • 1
  • Yi-Fang Lin
    • 1
  • Chi-Chin Sun
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyChang Gung Memorial Hospital 6FAn-Le District, Keelung CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Ryan Eye ClinicTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyChang Gung Memorial HospitalLinkouTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Chinese MedicineChang Gung UniversityKwei-shan, TaoyuanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations