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Aspects of the biology of hyaluronan, a largely neglected but extremely versatile molecule

Aspekte zur Biologie von Hyaluronan – wenig beachtet, aber extrem vielseitige Moleküle

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Zusammenfassung

Hyaluronsäure oder Hyaluronan ist nicht das inaktive "Füllmaterial" für das es lange Zeit gehalten wurde. Im Gegenteil, Hyaluronan, das von zumindest drei Enzymen synthetisiert wird, ist an vielen biologischen Prozessen aktiv beteiligt. Während schon sehr lange bekannt ist, dass zumindest Hyaluronanabbauprodukte eine Reihe negativer Auswirkungen haben können, wurden viele biologische Funktionen der intakten Produkte der drei Hyaluronansynthasen (HAS1, HAS2 und HAS3) erst in den letzten Jahren beschrieben. Die folgende Übersicht liefert eine Zusammenfassung dieser Erkenntnisse. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit liegt auf der Rolle von Hyaluronan und Hyaluronansynthasen bei Rheumatoider Arthritis, daneben werden noch Aspekte der Hyaluronanbiologie in Atherosklerose, Restenosen, Embryogenese und Tumorentstehung, sowie in der Modulation der Immunantwort beschrieben.

Summary

HA takes part in a surprisingly large number of biological processes such as embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cell motility, wound healing and cell adhesion. While substantial progress in HA research has indeed been made over the last years, many important questions have not yet been answered. One of the most pertinent questions awaiting an answer is the quest for functional differences of HA synthesized by the three HAS genes. Of similar importance would be investigations into intracellular signaling pathways involved in the activation of this gene family, a field in which to date very little is known. A better understanding of functional differences between the HAS encoding genes not only holds the promise for a better understanding of a series of biological processes but also the opportunity for selective intervention in a number of maladies characterized by abnormalities of HA levels.

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Correspondence to Karl M. Stuhlmeier.

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Stuhlmeier, K. Aspects of the biology of hyaluronan, a largely neglected but extremely versatile molecule. Wien Med Wochenschr 156, 563–568 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10354-006-0351-0

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