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Systematic Review on the Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy)

Purpose

The procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (stapled hemorrhoidopexy) has been introduced as an alternative to conventional hemorrhoidectomy. This is a systematic review on stapled hemorrhoidopexy of all randomized, controlled trials that have been published until August 2006.

Methods

All published, randomized, controlled trials comparing stapled hemorrhoidopexy to conventional hemorrhoidectomy were identified from Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and all Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, Cochrane Database of Systemic Review, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) between January 1991 and August 2006. Meta-analysis was performed by using the Forest plot review if feasible.

Results

A total of 25 randomized, controlled trials with 1,918 procedures were reviewed. The follow-up duration was from 1 to 62 months. Stapled hemorrhoidopexy was associated with less operating time (weighted mean difference, −11.35 minutes; P = 0.006), earlier return of bowel function (weighted mean difference −9.91 hours; P < 0.00001), and shorter hospital stay (weighted mean difference, −1.07 days; P = 0.0004). There was less pain after stapled hemorrhoidopexy, as evidenced by lower pain scores at rest and on defecation and 37.6 percent reduction in analgesic requirement. The stapled hemorrhoidopexy allowed a faster functional recovery with shorter time off work (weighted mean difference, −8.45 days; P < 0.00001), earlier return to normal activities (weighted mean difference, −15.85 days; P = 0.03), and better wound healing (odds ratio, 0.1; P = 0.0006). The patients’ satisfaction was significantly higher with stapled hemorrhoidopexy than conventional hemorrhoidectomy (odds ratio, 2.33; P = 0.003). Although there was increase in the recurrence of hemorrhoids at one year or more after stapled procedure (5.7 vs. 1 percent; odds ratio, 3.48; P = 0.02), the overall incidence of recurrent hemorrhoidal symptoms—early (fewer than 6 months; stapled vs. conventional: 24.8 vs. 31.7 percent; P = 0.08) or late (1 year or more) recurrence rate (stapled vs. conventional: 25.3 vs. 18.7 percent; P = 0.07)—was similar. The overall complication rate did not differ significantly from that of conventional procedure (stapled vs. conventional: 20.2 vs. 25.2 percent; P = 0.06). Compared with conventional surgery, stapled hemorrhoidopexy has less postoperative bleeding (odds ratio, 0.52; P = 0.001), wound complication (odds ratio, 0.05; P = 0.005), constipation (odds ratio, 0.45; P = 0.02), and pruritus (odds ratio, 0.19; P = 0.02). The overall need of surgical (odds ratio, 1.27; P = 0.4) and nonsurgical (odds ratio, 1.07; P = 0.82) reintervention after the two procedures was similar.

Conclusions

The Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoid (stapled hemorrhoidopexy) is safe with many short-term benefits. The long-term results are similar to conventional procedure.

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Correspondence to Joe J. Tjandra M.D., F.R.A.C.S..

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Tjandra, J.J., Chan, M.K.Y. Systematic Review on the Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy). Dis Colon Rectum 50, 878–892 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10350-006-0852-3

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Key words

  • Hemorrhoid
  • Hemorrhoidectomy
  • Hemorrhoidopexy
  • Stapled
  • Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoid