Facies

, 64:11 | Cite as

A Late Cretaceous epeiric carbonate platform: the Haftoman Formation of Central Iran

  • Markus Wilmsen
  • Michaela Berensmeier
  • Franz Theodor Fürsich
  • Mahmoud Reza Majidifard
  • Felix Schlagintweit
Original Article

Abstract

An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and microfacies of several sections has greatly improved the knowledge on the stratigraphy and depositional setting of the Coniacian to Campanian Haftoman Formation in the Khur area of the northern Yazd Block, Central Iran. Generally, the Haftoman Formation rests on a major tectonic unconformity and commences with a basal conglomerate followed by up to 900 m of shallow-water carbonates with local red sandstone intercalations. Five different depositional environments (from distal to proximal) characterize the facies associations (FA) of the Haftoman Formation: silty, spiculitic wackestone (proximal basin, FA I), bio-/intraclastic wacke-, pack-, and grainstone (marginal shoals, FA II), bioclastic rud-/float-/boundstone (outer platform, FA III), silty mud-/wackestone (lagoonal inner platform, FA IV), and sandstone/sandy limestone (areas close to the mouth of ephemeral streams, FA V). The litho-, micro-, and biofacies of the Haftoman Formation are typical for an epeiric carbonate platform characterized by an arid climate and lagoonal circulation, resulting in nutrient-poor waters, warm temperatures, and high salinities. The Haftoman Platform was attached to an emergent arid hinterland formed by the Anarak Metamorphic Complex to the west and southwest of the study area. Unconformity-bounded depositional units indicate sea-level changes that may correspond to 400-kyr high-frequency sequences but further studies are needed to fully exploit the potential of sequence stratigraphy for regional and inter-regional correlation of the Haftoman Formation.

Keywords

Upper Cretaceous Facies analysis Carbonate platform Depositional environments 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Geological Survey of Iran (GSI, Tehran) and the Darius programme (UPCM, Paris) for support of our studies in Iran. We furthermore acknowledge constructive reviews by H. Mehrabi (Tehran) and J.M. Pons (Barcelona) as well as the professional editorial handling by M.E. Tucker.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Wilmsen
    • 1
  • Michaela Berensmeier
    • 1
  • Franz Theodor Fürsich
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Reza Majidifard
    • 3
  • Felix Schlagintweit
    • 4
  1. 1.Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Mineralogie und GeologieDresdenGermany
  2. 2.GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Fachgruppe PaläoumweltFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Research Institute for Earth Sciences, Geological Survey of IranTehranIran
  4. 4.MunichGermany

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