Advertisement

Facies

, 62:1 | Cite as

Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and glacioeustatic control on cyclic carbonate microfacies in the Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary beds (Aladağ Unit, Eastern Taurides, Turkey)

  • Seda Demirel
  • Demir AltınerEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The Aladağ Unit, one of the tectonostratigraphic units in the Tauride Belt (Turkey), comprises a nearly uninterrupted Upper Paleozoic succession including the Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary beds. These boundary beds in the Eastern Taurides are made up of mainly carbonates with some intercalations of sandstone and shale. A detailed micropaleontological study has revealed three biozones based on foraminifera. These biozones are, in ascending order, Eostaffella ikensis-Vissarionovella tujmasensis Zone (Mikhailovsky; Late Viséan), Endothyranopsis (Reitlingeropsis) cf. sphaerica-Biseriella parva Zone (Venevsky; Late Viséan) and Eostaffella pseudostruvei Zone (Tarussky; Early Serpukhovian). Traditional Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary lies between the Endothyranopsis (Reitlingeropsis) cf. sphaerica-Biseriella parva Zone and the Eostaffella pseudostruvei Zone. The presence of ‘Millerella’ sp. aff. ‘M.’ tortula specimens in the last levels of the Venevsky horizon also suggests that the measured section, has the potential for the redefinition of the Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary, which would coincide with the datum marked by the evolutionary appearance of the conodont Lochriea ziegleri. Boundary beds were deposited in open-marine, shoal, or bank and tidal flat environments, which were interpreted based on the analysis of 12 microfacies and 11 sub-microfacies types. The main microfacies types are (1) bioclastic packstone; (2) bioclastic packstone to grainstone; (3) bioclastic grainstone; (4) bioclastic-intraclastic grainstone; (5) intraclastic grainstone; (6) sandy bioclastic grainstone; (7) peloidal packstone to wackestone (8) wackestone-mudstone; (9) shale; (10) peloidal grainstone or peloidal packstone to grainstone with dark micritic intraclasts; (11) peloidal packstone to grainstone with fenestral fabric; (12) quartz arenitic sandstone. Based on the stacking patterns and vertical evolution of microfacies, several meter-scale shallowing-upward cycles, three sequences, and two intervening sequence boundaries were recognized in the studied section. Sequence boundaries, lying within the Mikhailovsky and Venevsky horizons, are the records of global sea-level changes during the first episodes of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. The Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary falls within the transgressive systems tract of the third sequence and is correlatable with the boundary delineated in Russia. The duration of cycles is calculated as 117 ky and interpreted as orbitally induced (Milankovitch eccentricity) glacioeustatic cycles.

Keywords

Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary beds Foraminiferal biostratigraphy Carbonate microfacies Sequence stratigraphy Taurides Turkey 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. H.G. Herbig and the other anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments and contributions.

References

  1. Al-Tawil A, Read JF (2003) Late Mississippian (Late Meramecian-Chesterian) glacio-eustatic sequence development on an active distal foreland ramp, Kentucky, USA. In: Ahr WM, Harris PM, Morgan WA, Somerville ID (eds) Permo-Carboniferous carbonate platforms and reefs. SEPM Spec P 78 and AAPG Memoir 83, pp 35–55Google Scholar
  2. Altıner D (1981) Recherches stratigraphique et micropaléontologique dans le Taurus Oriental au NW de Pınarbaşı (Turquie). Dissertation, Université de GenèveGoogle Scholar
  3. Altıner D, Özgül N (2001) Paleoforams 2001; International Conference on Paleozoic Benthic Foraminifera; Carboniferous and Permian of the allochthonous terranes of the Central Tauride Belt, southern Turkey. Guide Book, p 35Google Scholar
  4. Amirshahkarami M, Vaziri-Moghaddama H, Taheri A (2007) Sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari formation at Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin, Iran. J Asian Earth Sci 29:947–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armella C, Cabaleri N, Leanza HA (2007) Tidally dominated, rimmed-shelf facies of the Picún Leufú Formation (Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary) in southwest Gondwana, Neuquén Basin, Argentina. Cretac Res 28:961–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong KA, Mamet BL (1977) Carboniferous microfacies, microfossils, and corals, Lisburne Group, arctic Alaska. Geol Surv Prof Paper 849Google Scholar
  7. Armstrong KA, Mamet BL, Repetski JE (1992) Stratigraphy of the Mississippian system, south-central Colorado and north-central New Mexico. US Geol Surv Bull 1787-EE:1–22Google Scholar
  8. Atakul-Özdemir A, Altıner D, Özkan-Altıner S, Yılmaz İÖ (2011) Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy across the mid-Carboniferous boundary in the Central Taurides, Turkey. Facies 57:705–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnett AJ, Burgess PM, Wright VP (2002) Icehouse world sea-level behaviour and resulting stratal patterns in late Visean (Mississippian) carbonate platforms: integration of numerical forward modelling and outcrop studies. Basin Res 14:417–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertola C, Boulvain F, Da Silva AC, Poty E (2013) Sedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of Mississippian (Tournaisian) carbonate sections in Belgium. Bull Geosci 88:69–82Google Scholar
  11. Blomeier D, Scheibner C, Forke H (2008) Facies arrangement and cyclostratigraphic architecture of a shallow-marine, warm-water carbonate platform: the Late Carboniferous Ny Friesland Platform in eastern Spitsbergen (Pyefjellet Beds, Wordiekammen Formation, Gipsdalen Group). Facies 55:291–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carozzi AV, Reichelderfer JL (1987) Reservoir controls in carbonate offshore bars, Salem Limestone (Middle Mississippian), southeastern Illinois. Trans Ill Acad Sci 80:71–82Google Scholar
  13. Colombié C, Strasser A (2005) Facies, cycles, and controls on the evolution of a keep-up carbonate platform (Kimmeridgian, Swiss Jura). Sedimentology 52:1207–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cózar P (2004) Foraminiferal and algal evidence for the recognition of the Asbian/Brigantian boundary in the Guadiato area (Mississippian, southwestern Spain). Rev Española Micropaleontol 36:367–388Google Scholar
  15. Cózar P, Somerville ID (2004) New algal and foraminiferal assemblages and evidence for recognition of the Asbian–Brigantian boundary in northern England. Proc Yorks Geol Soc 55:43–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cózar P, Somerville ID (2014) Latest Viséan-Early Namurian (Carboniferous) foraminifers from Britain: implications for biostratigraphic and glacioeustatic correlations. Newsl Stratigr 47:355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cózar P, Somerville HEA, Somerville ID (2005) Foraminifera, calcareous algae and rugose corals in Brigantian (Late Viséan) limestones in NE Ireland. Proc Yorks Geol Soc 55:287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cózar P, Somerville ID, Burges I (2008a) New foraminifers in the Visean/Serpukhovian boundary interval of the Lower Limestone Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland. J Paleontol 82:906–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cózar P, Vachard D, Somerville ID, Berkhli M, Mediana-Varea P, Rodríguez S, Said I (2008b) Late Viséan–Serpukhovian foraminiferans and calcareous algae from the Adarouch region (central Morocco), North Africa. Geol J 43:463–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cózar P, Medina-Varea P, Somerville ID, Vachard D, Rodríguez S, Said I (2014a) Foraminifers and conodonts from the late Viséan to early Bashkirian succession in the Saharan Tindouf Basin (southern Morocco): biostratigraphic refinements and implications for correlations in the western Palaeotethys. Geol J 49:271–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cózar P, Vachard D, Somerville ID, Medina-Varea P, Rodríguez S, Said I (2014b) The Tindouf Basin, a marine refuge during the Serpukhovian (Carboniferous) mass extinction in the northwestern Gondwana platform. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 394:12–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davydov VI, Wardlaw BR, Gradstein FM (2004) The Carboniferous Period. In: Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Smith AG (eds) A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 222–248Google Scholar
  23. Davydov VI, Korn D, Schmitz MD (2012) The Carboniferous period. In: Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Schmitz MD, Ogg GM (eds) A geologic time scale 2012, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 603–651Google Scholar
  24. Ehrenberg N, Nielsen EB, Svânâ TA, Stemmerik L (1998) Depositional evolution of the Finnmark carbonate platform, Barents Sea: results from wells 7128/6-1 and 7128/4-1. Nor Geol Tidsskr 78:185–224Google Scholar
  25. Fielding CR, Frank TD, Birgenheier LP, Rygel MC, Jones AT, Roberts J (2008) Stratigraphic imprint of the Late Paleozoic ice age in eastern Australia: a record of alternating glacial and non glacial climate regime. J Geol Soc Lond 165:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flügel E (2004) Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gallagher SJ, Macdermot CV, Somerville ID, Pracht M (2006) Biostratigraphy, microfacies and depositional environments of Upper Viséan limestones from the Burren region, County Clare, Ireland. Geol J 41:61–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gibshman NB, Baranova DV (2003) The foraminifers Janischewskina and ‘Millerella’, their evolutionary patterns and biostratigraphic potential for the Visean–Serpukhovian boundary. In: Wong ThE (ed) Proceedings of the XVth International congress on the Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy. Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (Amsterdam), Utrecht, pp 269–281Google Scholar
  29. Goldhammer RK, Dunn PA, Hardie LA (1990) Depositional cycles, composite sea-level changes, cycle stacking patterns, and their hierarchy of stratigraphic forcing: examples from Alpine Triassic platform carbonates. Geol Soc Am Bull 102:535–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldhammer RK, Harris MT, Dunn PA, Hardie LA (1993) Sequence stratigraphy and systems tract development of the Latemar Platform, Middle Triassic of the Dolomites (northern Italy): outcrop calibration keyed by cycle stacking patterns. In: Loucks RG, Sarg JF (eds) Carbonate sequence stratigraphy: recent developments and applications, vol 57. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp 353–387Google Scholar
  31. Groves JR, Yue W, Yuping Q, Richards BC, Ueno K, Xiangdong W (2012) Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Visean–Serpukhovian (Mississippian) boundary interval at slope and platform sections in southern Guizhou (South China). J Paleontol 86:753–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hance L, Hongfei H, Vachard D (2011) Upper Famennian to Visean foraminifers and some carbonate microproblematica from South China: Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou. Geological Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  33. Haq BU, Schutter SR (2008) A chronology of Paleozoic sea-level changes. Science 322:64–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235:1156–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hecker MR (2009) Major guide taxa for correlation of the Moscow and Donets Basins Dinantian successions with the type are (Belgium). In: Puchkov VN (ed) Carboniferous type sections in Russia and potential global stratotypes. Proceedings of the international field meeting “the historical type sections, proposed and potential GSSP of the Carboniferous in Russia”. Ufa-Sibai, pp 198–201Google Scholar
  36. Herbig HG, Mamet B (2006) A muddy to clear carbonate ramp latest Devonian, Velbert Anticline (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany). Geol Palaeontol 40:1–25Google Scholar
  37. Hüneke H, Joachimski M, Buggisch W, Lützner H (2001) Marine carbonate facies in response to climate and nutrient level: the Upper Carboniferous and Permian of central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Facies 45:93–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Isbell JL, Miller MF, Wolfe KL, Lenaker PA (2003) Timing of late Paleozoic glaciation in Gondwana: was glaciations responsible for the development of northern hemisphere cyclothems? Geol Soc Am Spec 370:5–24Google Scholar
  39. Joachimski MM, von Bitter PH, Buggisch W (2006) Constraints on Pennsylvanian glacioeustatic sea-level changes using oxygen isotopes of conodont apatite. Geology 34:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kakizaki Y, Kano A (2009) Architecture and chemostratigraphy of Late Jurassic shallow marine carbonates in NE Japan, western Paleo-Pacific. Sedim Geol 214:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karimi H, Ghadimvand NK, Kangazian A (2015) Sedimentary environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Kangan Formation in Kish Gas Field (Kish Well a1 Subsurface Section). Indian J Sci Technol 8:655–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kulagina EI, Pazukhin VN, Nikolaeva SV, Kochetova NN, Zainakaeva GF, Gibshman NB, Konovalova VA (2009) Serpukhovian and Bashkirian bioherm facies of the Kizil Formation in the southern Urals. Carboniferous type sections in Russia and potential global stratotypes. In: Proceedings of the international field meeting “the historical type sections, proposed and potential GSSP of the Carboniferous in Russia”, Ufa-Sibai, pp 78–96Google Scholar
  43. Lasemi Z, Norby RD (1999) Stratigraphy, paleoenvironments, and sequence stratigraphic implications of the Middle Mississippian Carbonates in Western Illinois. In: Lasemi Z, Norby RD, Devera JA, Fouke BW, Leetaru HE, Denny FB (eds) Middle Mississippian carbonates and siliciclastics in western Illinois. ISGS Guidebook 31, p 60Google Scholar
  44. Lehrmann DJ, Goldhammer RK (1999) Secular variation in facies and parasequence stacking patterns of platform carbonates: a guide to application of the stacking patterns technique in strata of diverse ages and settings. In: Harris DM, Saller AH, Simo JA (eds) Advances in carbonate sequence stratigraphy, Application to reservoirs, outcrops and models, vol 62, SEPM Spec Publications, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp 187–226Google Scholar
  45. Makhlina MKH (1996) Cyclic stratigraphy, facies and fauna of the lower Carboniferous (Dinantian) of the Moscow Syneclise and Voronezh Anteclise. In: Strogen P, Somerville ID, Jones GL (eds) Recent advances in lower Carboniferous geology, vol 107. Geological Society Special Publication, London, pp 359–369Google Scholar
  46. Menning M, Alekseev AS, Chuvashov BI, Davydov VI, Devuyst FX, Forke HC, Grunt TA, Hance L, Heckel PH, Izokh NG, Jin YG, Jones PJ, Kotlyar GV, Kozur HW, Nemyrovska TI, Schneider JW, Wang XD, Weddige K, Weyer D, Work DM (2006) Global time scale and regional stratigraphic reference scales of central and west Europe, east Europe, Tethys, south China, and North America as used in the Devonian–Carboniferous–Permian correlation chart 2003 (DCP 2003). Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 240:318–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller DJ, Eriksson KA (1999) Linked sequence development and global climate change: the Upper Mississippian record in the Appalachian basin. Geology 27:35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nigmadhaznov IM, Nikolaeva SV, Konovalova VA, Orlov-Labkovsky O (2010) Integrated ammonoid, conodont and foraminiferal stratigraphy in the Paltau section, Middle Tienshan, Uzbekistan. Newsl Carbonif Stratigr 28:50–60Google Scholar
  49. Noé SU (1987) Facies and paleogeography of the marine Upper Permian and of the Permian–Triassic boundary in the Southern Alps (Bellerophon formation, Tesero Horizon). Facies 16:89–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ogg JG, Ogg G, Gradstein FM (2008) The concise geological time scale. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Okuyucu C, Vachard D (2006) Late Viséan foraminifers and algae from the Cataloturan Nappe, Aladağ Mountains, Eastern Taurides, southern Turkey. Geobios 39:535–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Osleger D, Read JF (1991) Relation of eustasy to stacking patterns of meter-scale carbonate cycles, Late Cambrian, USA. J Sedim Petrol 61:1225–1252Google Scholar
  53. Özgül N (1976) Some geological aspects of the Taurus orogenic belt-Turkey. Bull Geol Soc Turkey 19:65–78Google Scholar
  54. Pazukhin VN, Kulagina EI, Nikolaeva SV, Kochetova NN, Konovalova VA (2010) The Serpukhovian stage in the Verkhnyaya Kardailovka section, South Urals. Stratigr Geol Correl 18:269–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pille L, Vachard D, Argyriadis I, Aretz M (2010) Revision of the late Visean–Serpukhovian (Mississippian) calcareous algae, foraminifers and microproblematica from Balia-Maden (NW Turkey). Geobios Lyon 43:531–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Poty E, Devuyst FX, Hance L (2006) Upper Devonian and Mississippian foraminiferal and rugose coral zonations of Belgium and Northern France, a tool for Eurasian correlations. Geol Mag 143:829–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Proust JN, Chuvashov BI, Vennin E, Boisseau T (1998) Carbonate platform drowning in a foreland setting: the Mid-Carboniferous platform in western Urals (Russia). J Sedim Res 68:1175–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richards B, Aretz M, Barnette A, Barskow I, Blanco-Ferrara S, Brenckle P, Clayton G, Dean M, Brooks E, Gibsman N, Hecker M, Konovola V, Corn D, Kulagina E, Lane R, Mamet B, Nemyrovska T, Nikoloeva S, Pazukhin V, Qi Y, Sanz-Lopez J, Saltzman M, Titus A, Utting J, Wang X (2010) Report of the task group of the subcommission of Carboniferous stratigraphy of the international commission of stratigraphy to establish a GSSP close to the existing Visea–Serpukhovian boundary. Newsl Carbonif Stratigr 28:30–34Google Scholar
  59. Richards B, Aretz M, Barnette A, Barskow I, Blanco-Ferrara S, Brenckle P, Clayton G, Dean M, Brooks E, Gibsman N, Hecker M, Konovola V, Corn D, Kulagina E, Lane R, Mamet B, Nemyrovska T, Nikoloeva S, Pazukhin V, Qi Y, Sanz-Lopez J, Saltzman M, Titus A, Utting J, Wang X (2014) Report of the task group of the subcommission of Carboniferous stratigraphy of the international commission of stratigraphy to establish a GSSP close to the existing Visean–Serpukhovian boundary. Newsl Carbonif Stratigr 31:29–33Google Scholar
  60. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1987) Late Paleozoic sea levels and depositional sequences. Cushman Found Foram Res Spec Publ 24:137–149Google Scholar
  61. Ruddiman WF, Wright HE Jr (1987) North America and adjacent oceans during the last deglaciation. Geol Soc Am, BoulderCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rygel MC, Fielding CR, Frank TD, Birgenheier LP (2008) The magnitude of Late Paleozoic glacioeustatic fluctuations: a synthesis. J Sedim Res 78:500–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sarg JF (1988) Carbonate sequence stratigraphy. In: Wilgus CK, Hastings BS et al (eds) Sea level changes: an integrated approach, vol 42. Soc Econ Pa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp 155–181Google Scholar
  64. Schlager W (2005) Carbonate sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy. SEPM, Concepts in sedimentology and palaeontology, n. 8, Tulsa, Oklahoma, p 200Google Scholar
  65. Schulze F, Kuss J, Marzouk A (2005) Platform configuration, microfacies and cyclicities of the upper Albian to Turonian of west-central Jordan. Facies 50:505–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schwarzacher W (1991) Milankovitch cycles and the measurement of time. In: Einsele G, Ricken W, Seilacher A (eds) Cycles and events in stratigraphy. Springer, London, pp 855–863Google Scholar
  67. Sevastopulo GD, Barham M (2014) Correlation of the base of the Serpukhovian stage (Mississippian) in NW Europe. Geol Mag 151:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shao L, Wang D, Cai H, Wang H, Lu J, Zhang P (2011) Ramp facies in an intracratonic basin: a case study from the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in central Hunan, southern China. Geosci Front 2:409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith LB, Read JF (2000) Rapid onset of late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana: evidence from Upper Mississippian strata of the Midcontinent, United States. Geology 28:279–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Somerville ID (2008) Biostratigraphic zonation and correlation of Mississippian rocks in Western Europe: some case studies in the late Viséan/Serpukhovian. Geol J 43:209–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Strasser A (1984) Black-pebble occurrence and genesis in Holocene carbonate sediments (Florida Keys, Bahamas, and Tunisia). J Sedim Res 54:1097–1109Google Scholar
  72. Ünal E, Altıner D, Yılmaz İÖ, Özkan-Altıner S (2003) Cyclic sedimentation across the Permian–Triassic boundary (Central Taurides, Turkey). Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 109:359–376Google Scholar
  73. Vachard D, Aretz M (2004) Biostratigraphical precisions on the Early Serpukhovian (Late Mississippian), by means of a carbonate algal microflora (cyanobacteria, algae and pseudo-algae) from la Serre (Montagne Noire, France). Geobios Lyon 37:643–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vachard D, Laveine JP, Zhang S, Deng G, Lemoigne Y (1991) Calcareous microfossils (foraminiferes, algae, pseudo-algae) from the uppermost Visean of Jiu Hu near Guangzhou (Canton), People’s Republic of China. Geobios 24:675–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vail PR, Mitchum RM, Thompson S (1977) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, Part 4: Global cycles of relative changes of the sea level. In: Payton CE (ed) Seismic stratigraphy: application to hydrocarbon exploration, vol 26. AAPG Memoir, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp 83–98Google Scholar
  76. Vail PR, Audemard F, Bowman SA, Eisner PN, Perez-Cruz C (1991) The stratigraphic signatures of tectonics, eustasy and sedimentology: an overview. In: Einsele G, Ricken W, Seilacher A (eds) Cycles and events in stratigraphy. Springer, Berlin, pp 617–659Google Scholar
  77. Vdovenko MV, Aisenverg DYE, Nemirovskaya TI, Poletaev VI (1990) An overview of Lower Carboniferous biozones of the Russian platform. J Foramin Res 20:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wright VP, Vanstone SD (2001) Onset of Late Paleozoic glacio-eustasy and the evolving climates of low latitude areas: a synthesis of current understanding. J Geol Soc Lond 158:579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wu X, Xiaochi J, Yue W, Wejie W, Yuping Q (2009) The foraminiferal assemblage in the Visean–Serpukhovian boundary interval at the Yashui section, Guizhou, South China. Newsl Carbonif Stratigr 27:28–33Google Scholar
  80. Zhou Z, Flügel E (1986) Carbonate ramp deposition: middle to upper Carboniferous microfacies of Eastern Anhui and Southern Jiangsu, China. Facies 14:201–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Directorate of Central and Regional Laboratory for Restoration and Conservation in IstanbulTopkapi PalaceIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Geological EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations