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A three-dimensional large-deformation random finite-element study of landslide runout considering spatially varying soil

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Abstract

Landslide is a uniquely dynamic large-deformation process that can present serious threat to human lives and infrastructures. The natural soil properties often exhibit inherent spatial variability, which affects the landslide behavior significantly. This paper focuses on combined Monte Carlo simulation and three-dimensional (3D) dynamic large-deformation finite-element (LDFE) analysis using the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian method to investigate the whole runout process of landslide induced by the earthquake in spatially varying soil. The results from LDFE analysis show that the mean value of runout distance in spatially varying soil is significantly higher than that of the deterministic value obtained from a homogeneous slope due to the slope failure developed along the weakest path in soils. The mean runout distance increases and converges with increasing slope length in 3D-LDFE stochastic analysis. The advantages and necessities of 3D-LDFE analysis were illustrated by comparing it with two-dimensional (2D) LDFE analysis of landslide in spatially varying soil. The results show that the calculated mean runout distance using 3D-LDFE method is at least 16.1% higher than that calculated using 2D-LDFE analysis. Finally, a linear regression formula was established to estimate the mean runout distance of landslide due to horizontal inertia acceleration. Such a formula may facilitate the risk assessment of landslide in practical engineering.

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Abbreviations

a :

Horizontal inertial acceleration

E :

Young’s modulus

f :

Field variable in Eulerian formulation

g :

Gravitational acceleration

h min :

The minimum mesh size used in CEL model

H :

Slope height

L 0 :

Slope length

L :

Runout distance

N :

The number of Monte Carlo simulation

S :

Source term in Eulerian formulation

s u0 :

Mean cohesion of soil

s u :

Spatially varying cohesion of soil

γ :

The unit weight of soil

θ :

Slope angle

φ :

Friction angle of soil

ψ :

Dilatancy angle of soil

ν :

Poisson’s ratio

ϕ :

Flux function in Eulerian formulation

Θ H :

Horizontal correlation length

Θ V :

Vertical correlation length

PGA:

Peak ground acceleration

2D:

Two dimensional

3D:

Three dimensional

CEL:

Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian

COV:

Coefficient of variation

EVF:

Eulerian volume fraction

FEM:

Finite-element method

FOS:

The factor of safety

LEM:

The limit equilibrium method

LFDE:

Large-deformation finite element

MC:

Monte Carlo

MLEM:

The modified linear estimation method

MPM:

Material point method

RITSS:

Remeshing and interpolation technique with small strain

SPH:

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics

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Funding

This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51879203, 52079099). These supports are gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Yong Liu.

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Chen, X., Li, D., Tang, X. et al. A three-dimensional large-deformation random finite-element study of landslide runout considering spatially varying soil. Landslides 18, 3149–3162 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-021-01699-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-021-01699-1

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