, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 65–73 | Cite as

An experimental evaluation of impact force on a fiber Bragg grating-based device for debris flow warning

  • Shaojie Zhang
  • Changxue Xu
  • Jiang ChenEmail author
  • Jun Jiang
Original Paper


Conventional sensors for debris flow monitoring suffer from several drawbacks including low service life, low reliability in long-distance data transfer, and stability in severe weather conditions. Recently, fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors have been developed to monitor debris flows. However, they can be easily damaged by the impact forces of boulders within debris flow. This paper presents a new FBG-based device to measure the strain induced by the impact force of debris flow with high reliability and effectiveness. The effects of the impact forces of debris flows have been investigated. Then, the relationship between the strain and the debris flow energy correlating with the damage to building structures has been established. It is shown that this new FBG-based device is capable of monitoring and warning about debris flows.


Fiber Bragg grating Debris-flow monitoring Impact force 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grand No.51809262) and the science and technology planning project from Chongqing Administration of Land, Resources and Housing (KJ-2018005).


  1. Arattano M, Marchi L (2008) Systems and sensors for debris flow monitoring and warning. Sensors 8(4):2436–2452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baum RL, Godt JW (2010) Ear8ly warning of rainfall-induced shallow landslides and debris flows in the USA. Landslides 7:259–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brückl E, Brunner FK, Lang E, Mertl S, Müller M, Stary U (2013) The Gradenbach observatory—monitoring deep-seated gravitational slope deformation by geodetic, hydrological, and seismological methods. Landslides 10:815–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen NS, Tanoli JI, Hu GS, Wang FN, Yang CL, Ding HT, He N, Wang T (2016) Outlining a stepwise, multi-parameter debris flow monitoring and warning system: an example of application in Aizi Valley, China. J Mt Sci 13(9):1527–1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen J, Cheng F, Xiong F, Ge Q, Zhang SJ (2017) An experimental study: fiber Bragg grating-hydrothermal cycling integration system for seepage monitoring of rockfill dams. Struct Health Monit 16(1):50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chou HT, Cheung YL, Zhang S (2007) Calibration of infrasound monitoring system and acoustic characteristics of debris-flow movement by field studies. In: Chen CL, Major JJ (ed) Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment. Millpress, Rotterdam, Netherlands, p 571–580Google Scholar
  7. Collins TK (2008) Debris flows caused by failure of fill slopes: early detection, warning, and loss prevetion. Landslides 5:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Habel WR, Krebber K (2011) Fiber-optic sensor applications in civil and geotechnical engineering. Photonic Sensor 1:268–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang CJ, Chu CR, Tien TM, Yin HY, Chen PS (2012) Calibration and deployment of a fiber-optic sensing system for monitoring debris flows. Sensors 12:5835–5849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lin YL, Lin KH, Lin WW, Chen MH (2007) A debris flow monitoring system by means of fiber optic interferometers. In: Eric U (ed) Fiber optic sensors and applications V. SPIE, Boston, USA. 7660(6770):67700Z.1–67700Z.8Google Scholar
  11. Parkes EW (1955) The permanent deformation of a cantilever struck transversely at its tip. Proc R Soc Lond 228(1175):462–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pei HF, Cui P, Yin JH, Zhu HH, Chen XQ, Pei LZh XDS (2011) Monitoring and warning of landslides and debris flow using an optical fiber sensor technology. J Mt Sci 8:728–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reid SR, Gui XG (1987) On the elastic-plastic deformation of cantilever beams subjected to tip impact. Int J Impact Eng 6(2):109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schimmel A, Hübl J (2016) Automatic detection of debris flows and debris floods based on a combination of infrasound and seismic signals. Landslides 13:1181–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Symonds PS, Yu TX (1985) Counterintuitive behavior in a problem of elastic-plastic beam dynamics. J Appl Mech 52:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang BJ, Li K, Shi B, Wei GQ (2009) Test on application of distributed fiber optic sensing technique into soil slope monitoring. Landslides 6:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang K, Zhang SJ, Chen J, Teng PX, Wei FQ, Chen Q (2017) A laboratory experimental study: an FBG-PVC tube integrated device for monitoring the slip surface of landslides. Sensors 17:2486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang SC (1989) A review of the research of debris flow. Adv Mech 19(25):365–375 (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  19. Zhang SJ, Chen J (2017) An experimental study: integration device of Fiber Bragg grating and reinforced concrete beam for measuring debris flow impact force. J Mt Sci 14:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Zhang Q, Wang Y, Sun Y, Gao L, Zhang Z, Zhang W, Zhao P, Yue Y (2016) Using custom fiber Bragg grating-based sensors to monitor artificial landslides. Sensors 16:1417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhu HH, Sh B, Yan JF, Zhang J, Wang J (2015) Investigation of the evolutionary process of a reinforced model slope using a fiber-optic monitoring network. Eng Geol 186:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaojie Zhang
    • 1
  • Changxue Xu
    • 2
  • Jiang Chen
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jun Jiang
    • 4
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Process, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.Department of Industrial, Manufacturing, and Systems EngineeringTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  3. 3.College of Architecture and EnvironmentSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  4. 4.Chongqing Institute of Geological Environment MonitoringChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations