Advertisement

Landslides

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 1361–1374 | Cite as

Characteristics and numerical runout modeling of the heavy rainfall-induced catastrophic landslide–debris flow at Sanxicun, Dujiangyan, China, following the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake

  • Yang Gao
  • Yueping Yin
  • Bin LiEmail author
  • Zhen Feng
  • Wenpei Wang
  • Nan Zhang
  • Aiguo Xing
Original Paper

Abstract

The 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake triggered a large number of extensive landslides. It also affected geologic properties of the mountains such that large-scale landslides followed the earthquake, resulting in the formation of a disaster chain. On 10 July 2013, a catastrophic landslide–debris flow suddenly occurred in the Dujiangyan area of Sichuan Province in southeast China. This caused the deaths of 166 people and the burying or damage of 11 buildings along the runout path. The landslide involved the failure of ≈1.47 million m3, and the displaced material from the source area was ≈0.3 million m3. This landslide displayed shear failure at a high level under the effects of a rainstorm, which impacted and scraped an accumulated layer underneath and a heavily weathered rock layer during the release of potential and kinetic energies. The landslide body entrained a large volume of surface residual diluvial soil, and then moved downstream along a gully to produce a debris flow disaster. This was determined to be a typical landslide–debris flow disaster type. The runout of displaced material had a horizontal extent of 1200 m and a vertical extent of 400 m. This was equivalent to the angle of reach (fahrböschung angle) of 19° and covered an area of 0.2 km2. The background and motion of the landslide are described in this study. On the basis of the above analysis, dynamic simulation software (DAN3D) and rheological models were used to simulate the runout behavior of the displaced landslide materials in order to provide information for the hazard zonation of similar types of potential landslide–debris flows in southeast China following the Wenchuan earthquake. The simulation results of the Sanxicun landslide revealed that the frictional model had the best performance for the source area, while the Voellmy model was most suitable for the scraping and accumulation areas. The simulations estimated that the motion could last for ≈70 s, with a maximum speed of 47.7 m/s.

Keywords

Landslide–debris flow Runout Dynamic analysis DAN3D model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 41472295 and 41302246). The authors express their gratitude to Prof. Xing Aiguo and Drs. Wang Lei and He Kai for the kind support and guidance. We are grateful to Prof. O. Hungr for supplying a copy of the DAN3D software.

References

  1. Boultbee N (2005) Characterization of the Zymoetz River rock avalanche. M.Sc. thesis, Simon Fraser University, BurnabyGoogle Scholar
  2. Corominas J (1996) The angle of reach as a mobility index for small and large landslides. Can Geotech J 33(2):260–271Google Scholar
  3. Cui P, Zhu YY, Han YS, Chen XQ, Zhuang JQ (2009) The 12 May Wenchuan earthquake induced landslide lakes: distribution and preliminary risk evaluation. Landslides 6(3):209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Evans SG, Hungr O, Clague JJ (2001) Dynamics of the 1984 rock avalanche and associated distal debris flow on mount Cayley, British Columbia, Canada; implications for landslide hazard assessment on dissected volcanoes. Eng Geol 61:29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. GEO (2011) Guidelines on the assessment of debris mobility for channelised debris flows. GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 29. Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 6pGoogle Scholar
  6. GEO (2012) Guidelines on assessment of debris mobility for open hillslope failures. GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 34. Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 16pGoogle Scholar
  7. GEO (2013) Guidelines on the assessment of debris mobility for failures within topographic depression catchments. GEO Technical Guidance Note No. 38. Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 8pGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang RQ, Xu Q, Huo JJ (2011) Mechanism and geo-mechanics models of landslides triggered by 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake. J Mt Sci 8(2):200–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang RQ, Pei XJ, Fan XM, Zhang WF (2012a) The characteristics and failure mechanism of the largest landslide triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake, May 12, 2008, China. Landslides 9:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hungr O, Evans S (1996) Rock avalanche runout prediction using a dynamic model. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Landslides, vol 1. Trondheim, Norway, pp 233–238Google Scholar
  11. Hungr O, Evans SG (2004) Entrainment of debris in rock avalanches: an analysis of a long run-out mechanism[J]. Geol Soc Am Bull 116(9–10):1240–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hungr O, McDougall S (2009) Two numerical models for landslide dynamic analysis[J]. Comput Geosci 35(5):978–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hungr O, Dawson RF, Kent A et al (2002) Rapid flow slides of coal-mine waste in British Columbia, Canada [J]. Rev Eng Geol 15:191–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hungr O, Corominas J, Eberhardt E (2005) Estimating landslide motion mechanism, travel distance and velocity. Landslide Risk Management:99–128Google Scholar
  15. Kwan JSH, Sun HW (2006) An improved landslide mobility model. Can Geotech J 43(5):31–539Google Scholar
  16. McDougall S (2006) A new continuum dynamic model for the analysis of extremely rapid landslide motion across complex 3D terrain[D]. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, pp 169–225Google Scholar
  17. McDougall S, Hungr O (2004) A model for the analysis of rapid landslide motion across three-dimensional terrain. Can Geotech J 41(6):1084–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Parker RN, Densmore AL, Rosser NJ, de Michele M, Li Y, Huang RQ, Whadcoat S, Petley DN (2011) Mass wasting triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is greater thanorogenic growth. Nat Geosci 4(7):449–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Scheidegger A E (1973) On the prediction of the reach and velocity of catastrophic landslides. Rock Mech Rock Eng 5(4):231–236Google Scholar
  20. Sosio R, Crosta GB, Hungr O (2008) Complete dynamic modeling calibration for the Thurwieser rock avalanche (Italian Central Alps). Eng Geol 100(1):11–26Google Scholar
  21. Tang C, Zhu J, Li WL (2009) Rainfall-triggered debris flows following the Wenchuan earthquake. Bull Eng Geol Environ 68:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tang C, Van Asch TWJ, Chang M, Chen GQ, Zhao XH, Huang XC (2012) Catastrophicdebris flows on 13 August 2010 in the Qingping area, southwestern China: thecombined effects of a strong earthquake and subsequent rainstorms. Geomorphology 139–140:559–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wong HN, Ko FWY, Hui THH (2006) Assessment of landslide risk of Natural hillsides in Hong Kong (GEO report no. 191). Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong, 117 PGoogle Scholar
  24. Xing AG, Wang GH, Li B et al (2014) Long-runout mechanism and landsliding behaviour of large catastrophic landslide triggered by heavy rainfall in Guanling, Guizhou, China[J]. Can Geotech J 52(7):971–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xing A, Wang G, Yin Y, et al (2015) Investigation and dynamic analysis of a catastrophic rock avalanche on September 23, 1991, Zhaotong, China[J]. Landslides 13(5):1035–1047Google Scholar
  26. Xing A, Yuan X, Xu Q et al (2016) Characteristics and numerical runout modelling of a catastrophic rock avalanche triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in the Wenjia valley, Mianzhu, Sichuan, China. Landslides doi: 10.1007/s10346-016-0707-5
  27. Yin YP (2014) Vertical acceleration effect on landsides triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Environ Earth Sci 71:4703–4714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yin YP, Wang FW, Sun P (2009) Landslide hazards triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan, China. Landslides 6(2):139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yin YP, Zheng WM, Li XC et al (2011) Catastrophic landslides associated with the M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. Bull Eng Geol Environ 70(1):15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yin Y, Cheng Y, Liang J, Wang W (2016) Heavy-rainfall-induced catastrophic rockslidedebris flow at Sanxicun, Dujiangyan, after the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake. Landslides 13(1):9–23Google Scholar
  31. Zhang M, Yin YP, Wu SR (2010) Development status and prospects of studies on kinematics of long runout rock avalanches[J]. J Eng Geol 18(6):805–817Google Scholar
  32. Zhang S, Zhang LM, Chen HX (2014a) Relationships among three repeated large-scaledebris flows at the Pubugou ravine in the Wenchuan earthquake zone. Can Geotech J51(9):51–965Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang Gao
    • 1
  • Yueping Yin
    • 1
  • Bin Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhen Feng
    • 1
  • Wenpei Wang
    • 1
  • Nan Zhang
    • 1
  • Aiguo Xing
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geo–MechanicsChinese Academy of Geological Sciences, CGSBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations