Advertisement

Landslides

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 573–583 | Cite as

Geology, permafrost, and lake level changes as factors initiating landslides on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, Siberia)

  • Sebastian TyszkowskiEmail author
  • Halina Kaczmarek
  • Michał Słowiński
  • Elena Kozyreva
  • Dariusz Brykała
  • Artiom Rybchenko
  • Viktoria A. Babicheva
Original Paper

Abstract

Permafrost decline, observed in the last few decades as a result of climate change, causes an activation of cryogenic landslide processes. This study on Olkhon Island in Lake Baikal (Eastern Siberia), located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, was aimed to determine how strongly the landslide forms found there are associated with climatic conditions and if they can react to climate change. It was also important to identify which type of landslides in this area is the most sensitive indicator of the observed changes and to what extent they can react to them. For this purpose, landslides were identified, and their morphology, geological structure, and thermal parameters were assessed. The results show that the key process is the increase in thickness of the active layer, partly due to the presence of Miocene lake clays and changes in water level in Lake Baikal.

Keywords

Landslide Permafrost Solifluction Climate change Olkhon Island Eastern Siberia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was part of the project “Exogenous processes as human pressure indicators in water bodies and their zone of influence—continuation” (2011–2013). It was partly supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Warsaw, Poland (grants N N306 033033 in 2007–2009, N N306 086037, and N N306 085037 in 2009–2012) and by the Virtual Institute for Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Authors would like to thank V. A. Pellinen from the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, Russian Academy of Science, for the help in obtaining weather data from the weather station in Khuzhir at Olkhon. Authors would also like to thank anonymous reviewers from Landslides for reviewing the paper, which has helped to improve it significantly, and they wish to express their appreciation for the kind support received from the Editor.

References

  1. Anisimov OA, Lobanov VA, Reneva SA (2007) Analysis of changes in air temperature in Russia and empirical forecast for the first quarter of the 21st century. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 32(10):620–626. doi: 10.3103/s1068373907100020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballantyne CK, Harris C (1994) The periglaciation of Great Britain. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Benedict JB (1976) Frost creep and gelifluction features: a review. Quat Res 6(1):55–76. doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(76)90040-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkin NS, Makarov AA, Rusinek OT (2009) Introduction to the study of Lake Baikal: textbook (in Russian). Irkutsk University, IrkutskGoogle Scholar
  5. Couture N, Pollard W (2007) Modelling geomorphic response to climatic change. Clim Chang 85(3–4):407–431. doi: 10.1007/s10584-007-9309-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crozier MJ (2010) Deciphering the effect of climate change on landslide activity: a review. Geomorphology 124(3–4):260–267. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Czudek T, Demek J (1970) Thermokarst in Siberia and its influence on the development of lowland relief. Quat Res 1(1):103–120. doi: 10.1016/0033-5894(70)90013-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dyke LD (2004) Stability of frozen and thawing slopes in the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories. In: Proceedings of the 57th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Quebec City, Quebec, Session 1G, pp. 31-38Google Scholar
  9. Dyke LD, Brooks GR (eds) (2000) The physical environment of the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories: a base line for the assessment of environmental change. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 547Google Scholar
  10. Frauenfeld OW, Zhang T, Barry RG, Gilichinsky D (2004) Interdecadal changes in seasonal freeze and thaw depths in Russia. J Geophys Res Atmos 109(D5):D05101. doi: 10.1029/2003JD004245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galaziy GI (ed) (1993) Baikal Atlas (in Russian). Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  12. Galaziy GI, Lut BF (2000) Baikal earthquake (one of possible causes) (in Russian). Geogr Nat Resour 2:37–42Google Scholar
  13. Gavrilova M (2007) Air temperature change in permafrost regions: East Siberia–Mongolia–China. Proceedings of the International Symposium, Asian Collaboration in IPY 2007-2008, 1st March 2007, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  14. Grosse G, Romanovsky V, Jorgenson T, Anthony KW, Brown J, Overduin PP (2011) Vulnerability and feedbacks of permafrost to climate change. Eos, Transactions AmericanGoogle Scholar
  15. Harris C, Rea B, Davies M (2001) Scaled physical modelling of mass movement processes on thawing slopes. Permafr Periglac Process 12(1):125–135. doi: 10.1002/ppp.373 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris C, Kern-Luetschg M, Murton J, Font M, Davies M, Smith F (2008) Solifluction processes on permafrost and non-permafrost slopes: results of a large-scale laboratory simulation. Permafr Periglac Process 19(4):359–378. doi: 10.1002/ppp.630 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hughes OL (1972) Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzi Valley transportation coridor. In: Proceedings of the Canadian North Pepeline Research Conference, Ottawa, February 1972, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, National Research Council of Canada, Technical Memorandum 104, pp. 17-24Google Scholar
  18. Huscroft CA, Lipovsky P, Bond JD (2004) Permafrost and landslide activity: case studies from southwestern Yukon Territory. In: Emond DS, Lewis LL (eds), Yukon Exploration and Geology 2003, Yukon Geological Survey, pp. 107-119Google Scholar
  19. Ivanov AV, Gladkochub DP, Déverchère J, Ernst RE (2013) Introduction to special issue: geology of the Lake Baikal region. J Asian Earth Sci 62(0):1–3. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khomutov A, Leibman M (2014) Assessment of landslide hazards in a typical tundra of Central Yamal, Russia. In: Shan W, Guo Y, Wang F, Marui H, Strom A (eds) Landslides in Cold Regions in the Context of Climate Change. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer International Publishing, pp 271-290. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-00867-7_20
  21. Konoplev SP (ed) (1964) Geology map of SSSR, 1:200000 scale, Baikal Region (in Russian). State Geological Committee SSSR, Nedra, MoskowGoogle Scholar
  22. Koven CD, Riley WJ, Stern A (2012) Analysis of permafrost thermal dynamics and response to climate change in the CMIP5 earth system models. J Clim 26(6):1877–1900. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00228.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kozyreva EA, Radziminovich JB (2008) Landslides deformation of Olkhon Island shore zone and methods their study (in Russian). Geoinformatica 3:29–36Google Scholar
  24. Lake level (2012) In: On the state of Lake Baikal and the measures for its protection in 2011 year—state report (in Russian), Moskow, pp. 11-16. Available at http://geol.irk.ru/baikal/baikal.htm
  25. Leibman MO (1995) Cryogenic landslides on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: preliminary observations. Permafr Periglac Process 6(3):259–264. doi: 10.1002/ppp.3430060307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leibman MO (1997) Cryolithological peculiarities of the active layer on slopes in relation to cryogenic landslides (in Russian). Earth Cryosphere 1(2):50–55Google Scholar
  27. Leibman MO, Egorov IP (1996) Climatic and environmental controls of cryogenic landslides, Yamal, Russia. In: Senneset K (ed) Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Landslides. Balkema, Trondheim, pp 1941–1946Google Scholar
  28. Lewkowicz AG (1988) Slope Processes. In: Clark MJ (ed) Advances in periglacial geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 325–368Google Scholar
  29. Lewkowicz AG (2007) Dynamics of active-layer detachment failures, Fosheim Peninsula, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Permafr Periglac Process 18(1):89–103. doi: 10.1002/ppp.578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lunina OV, Gladkov AS, Szerstiankin PP (2010) The new electronic map of active faults in southern East Siberia (in Russian). Doklady RAN 433(5):662–667Google Scholar
  31. Lyle RR, Hutchinson DJ (2006) Influence of degrading permafrost on landsliding processes: Little Salmon Lake, Yukon Territory, Canada. In: Proceedings of Geohazards International Engineering Conferences, June 18-21, 2006 - Lillehammer, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  32. Lyle RR, Hutchinson DJ, Preston Y (2005) Landslide processes in discontinuous permafrost, Little Salmon Lake (NTS 105 L/1 and 2), south-central Yukon. In: Emond DS, Lewis LL, Bradshaw GD (eds) Yukon Exploration and Geology 2004. Yukon Geological Survey, pp. 193-204Google Scholar
  33. Matsuoka N (2011) Climate and material controls on periglacial soil processes: toward improving periglacial climate indicators. Quat Res 75(2):356–365. doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2010.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mel’nikova VI, Gileva NA, Radziminovich NA, Masal’skii OK, Chechel’nitskii VV (2010) Seismicity of the Baikal rift zone for the digital recording period of earthquake observation (2001–2006). Seism Instr 46(2):193–206. doi: 10.3103/S0747923910020076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nadim F, Kjekstad O, Peduzzi P, Herold C, Jaedicke C (2006) Global landslide and avalanche hotspots. Landslides 3(2):159–173. doi: 10.1007/s10346-006-0036-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Palshin GВ (ed) (1968) Engineering geology of Prebaikale (in Russian). Publishing House Nauka, MoskowGoogle Scholar
  37. Pavlov AV, Malkova GV (2008) Regional geocryological dangers associated with contemporary climate change. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, University of Alaska Fairbanks, June 29–July 3, 2008, 2, pp. 1375 - 1379Google Scholar
  38. Romanovsky VE, Sazonova TS, Balobaev VT, Shender NI, Sergueev DO (2007) Past and recent changes in air and permafrost temperatures in eastern Siberia. Global and Planetary Change 56(3–4):399–413. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.07.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sherstyukov AB (2008) Correlation of soil temperature with air temperature and snow cover depth in Russia (in Russian). Earth’s Cryosphere 12(1):79–87Google Scholar
  40. Smith LC, Sheng Y, MacDonald GM, Hinzman LD (2005) Disappearing arctic lakes. Science 308(5727):1429. doi: 10.1126/science.1108142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trofimova IE (2006) Current status and trends of long-term changes in permafrost thermal regime of soils in the Baikal Region (in Russian). Geogr Nat Resour 4:38–45Google Scholar
  42. Trzchinskij JB, Kozyriewa EA, Szczypek T (2009) Fluctuations of Lake Baikal level and process of swamping of its shores (a case study of Chivyrkyj Isthmus—the Myagkaya Karga—and its neibourhood) (in Polish). In: Jankowski AT, Absalon D, Machowski R, Ruman M (eds) Przeobrażenia stosunków wodnych w warunkach zmieniającego się środowiska. Sosnowiec University, Sosnowiec, pp 279–291Google Scholar
  43. van Everdingen R (ed) (1998, revised May 2005) Multi-language glossary of permafrost and related ground-ice terms. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data CenterGoogle Scholar
  44. Voropay NN, Maksyutova EV, Balybina AS (2011) Contemporary climatic changes in the Predbaikalie region. Environ Res Lett 6(4):045209. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang B, Paudel B, Li H (2009) Retrogression characteristics of landslides in fine-grained permafrost soils, Mackenzie Valley, Canada. Landslides 6(2):121–127. doi: 10.1007/s10346-009-0150-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Washburn AL (1967) Instrumental observations of mass-wasting in the Mesters Vig district, Northeast Greenland. Meddelelserom Grønland 166(4)Google Scholar
  47. Wei M, Fujun N, Satoshi A, Dewu J (2006) Slope instability phenomena in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Landslides 3(3):260–264. doi: 10.1007/s10346-006-0045-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Tyszkowski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Halina Kaczmarek
    • 1
  • Michał Słowiński
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elena Kozyreva
    • 3
  • Dariusz Brykała
    • 1
  • Artiom Rybchenko
    • 3
  • Viktoria A. Babicheva
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Resources and Geohazards, Institute of Geography and Spatial OrganizationPolish Academy of SciencesToruńPoland
  2. 2.GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 5.2—Climate Dynamics and Landscape EvolutionPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.Laboratory of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Siberian BranchInstitute of the Earth’s Crust Russian Academy of SciencesIrkutskRussia

Personalised recommendations