, 3:341 | Cite as

A review of landsliding and coastal erosion damage to historic fortifications in South East England

  • E. N. Bromhead
  • M.-L. IbsenEmail author
Original Article


Coastal fortifications in South East England have been continuously built and rebuilt over the centuries according to the ebb and flow of politics in Europe. This paper covers an extensive historical period from the influx of the Romans to the present day, detailing how landslides and coastal erosion have affected the numerous constructions along this stretch of coastline. Principal landslide-prone strata form extensive sections of this part of the coast with the tendency to be weak and highly susceptible to marine attack and cliff retreat. Fortifications have been built out of necessity in strategic positions without full consideration of the ground upon which they have been constructed. The continual construction of fortifications along this section of coastline constitutes an unparalleled archaeological record, but it is one that is under continuous threat from coastal erosion and landsliding.


Landslides Fortifications Southeast Britain Coast 



The authors would like to thank numerous colleagues for their support and interest during this review, with particular mention to Prof. Sassa, Prof. Hutchinson and Prof. Coppola.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringKingston UniversityKingston upon ThamesUK

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