Skip to main content

Ex post and insurance-based compensation fail to increase tolerance for wolves in semi-agricultural landscapes of central Italy

Abstract

Range expansion by large carnivores in semi-agricultural landscapes represents a serious challenge for managing human-carnivore conflicts. By focusing on an area of recent re-colonization by wolves in central Italy, where livestock owners lost traditional husbandry practices to cope with wolves, we assessed an ex post and a subsequent insurance-based compensation program implemented from 1999 to 2013. We cross checked official depredation statistics and compensation records from various registries, complementing them with a questionnaire survey of sheep owners. Compared to ex post compensation (1999–2005), under the insurance program (2006–2013) compensation paid annually dropped on average by 81.1 %, mostly reflecting that only 4.6 (±0.7 SD) % of sheep owners stipulated the insurance annually. Officially, only 5.5 % of active sheep owners were annually afflicted by wolf depredation during the insurance scheme, but we estimated this proportion to be as high as 34.3 % accounting for the proportion of affected sheep owners who did not officially claim depredations. Coupled with substantial retaliatory killing (minimum of five wolves killed/year), this large amount of cryptic conflict is a symptom of distrust by livestock owners of past and current conflict mitigation policies, despite more than two decades of compensation. We conclude that compensation may fail to improve tolerance toward carnivores unless it is integrated into participatory processes and that lack of reliable data on depredations and damage mitigation strategies exacerbates the conflict. Being advocates of the evidence-based paradigm in management, scientists share a key responsibility in providing objective data concerning progress of conflict management.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Agarwala M, Kumar S, Treves A, Naughton-Treves L (2010) Paying for wolves in Solapur, India and Wisconsin, USA: comparing compensation rules and practice to understand the goals and politics of wolf conservation. Biol Conserv 143:2945–2955. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.05.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alfieri M (2014) Manifesto-choc degli agricoltori: agnellino sgozzato da predatore. La Nazione. http://www.lanazione.it/grosseto/cronaca/2014/02/08/1022471-manifesto_choc_degli_agricoltori_agnellino_sgozzato_predatore.shtml. Accessed 10 Nov 2015. [In Italian]

  • Apollonio M, Mattioli L, Scandura M, Mauri L, Gazzola A, Avanzinelli E (2004) Wolves in the Casentinesi forests: insights for wolf conservation in Italy from a protected area with a rich wild prey community. Biol Conserv 120:249–260. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.02.021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bagchi S, Mishra C (2006) Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). J Zool 268:217–224. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2005.00030.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bangs EE, Fontaine JA, Jimenez MD et al (2005) Managing wolf-human conflict in the northwestern United States. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 340–356

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Banti P, Bartolozzi L, Cavallini P (2005) The management of wolf in Tuscany-Italy. In: Ciucci P, Teofili C, Boitani L (eds) Grandi carnivori e zootecnia tra conflitto e coesistenza. Biol Cons Fauna 115:98–101 [In Italian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Bargagli L (2006) Analisi alimentare del lupo sul Monte Amiata. In: Lovari S, Sangiuliano A (eds) Il lupo sul Monte Amiata: progetto sui grandi canidi (lupo, cane) nel territorio dell’Amiata Grossetana e Senese. Comunità Montana Amiata Grossetano, Grosseto, pp 73–99 [In Italian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Bath AJ, Buchanan T (1989) Attitudes of interest groups in Wyoming toward wolf restoration in Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Soc B 17:519–525

    Google Scholar 

  • BDN (2013) Banca Dati Nazionale dell’Anagrafe Zootecnica istituita dal Ministero della Salute presso il CSN dell’Istituto “G. Caporale” di Teramo. Updated 31 December 2013. http://statistiche.izs.it/portal/page?_pageid=73,12918&_dad=portal. Accessed 15 September 2015. [In Italian]

  • Berzi D (2007) Sistemi di indennizzo in Toscana, 15 anni di storia travagliata. In: Proceedings of the International Conference: large carnivores and agriculture comparing experiences across Italy and Europe. LIFE 04NAT/IT/000144-COEX, pp 11-12. [In Italian]

  • Blanco JC (2003) Wolf damage compensation in Spain. Carnivore Damage Prev News 6:7–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Bocci A (2013) Piano strategico provinciale per la riduzione del randagismo canino. Proposta del partenariato Life/Ibriwolf e dei gruppi di interesse. Action A6 10 NAT/IT/000265 IBRIWOLF http://www.ibriwolf.it/it/content/download?page=4. Accessed 15 Sept 2015. [In Italian]

  • Boitani L (2000) Action plan for the conservation of the wolves (Canis lupus) in Europe. Nature and Environment Series, no. 113, Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Council of Europe, Strasbourg

    Google Scholar 

  • Boitani L (2003) Wolf conservation and recovery. In: Mech DL, Boitani L (eds) Wolves: behavior, ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 317–340

    Google Scholar 

  • Boitani L, Ciucci P (1993) Wolves in Italy: critical issues for their conservation. In: Promberger C, Schröder W (eds) Wolves in Europe: current status and perspectives. Munich Wildlife Society, Ettal, pp 75–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Boitani L, Ciucci P, Raganella-Pelliccioni E (2010) Ex-post compensation payments for wolf predation on livestock in Italy: a tool for conservation? Wildlife Res 37:722–730. doi:10.1071/WR10029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Breitenmoser U, Angst C, Landry J-M, Breitenmoser-Wursten C, Linnell JDC, Weber J-M (2005) Non-lethal techniques for reducing depredation. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 49–71

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Browne-Nuñez C, Treves A, MacFarland D, Voyles Z, Turng C (2015) Tolerance of wolves in Wisconsin: a mixed-methods examination of policy effects on attitudes and behavioral inclinations. Biol Conserv 189:59–71. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.12.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bruskotter JT, Wilson RS (2014) Determining where the wild things will be: using psychological theory to find tolerance for large carnivores. Conserv Lett 7:158–165. doi:10.1111/conl.12072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bulte EH, Rondeau D (2005) Why compensating wildlife damages may be bad for conservation. J Wildl Manage 69:14–19. doi:10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069<0014:WCWDMB>2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cagnolaro L, Rosso D, Spagnesi M, Venturi B (1974) Inchiesta sulla distribuzione del lupo (Canis lupus L.) in Italia e nei cantoni Ticino e Grigioni (Svizzera). Ricerche di Biologia della Selvaggina 59 [In Italian]

  • Can ÖE, D’Cruze N, Garshelis DL, Beecham J, Macdonald DW (2014) Resolving human-bear conflict: a global survey of countries, experts, and key factors. Conserv Lett 7:501–513. doi:10.1111/conl.12117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caniglia R, Fabbri E, Greco C et al (2013) Black coats in an admixed wolf × dog pack is melanism an indicator of hybridization in wolves? Eur J Wildlife Res 59:543–555. doi:10.1007/s10344-013-0703-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chapron G, Kaczensky P, Linnell JDC et al (2014) Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517–1519. doi:10.1126/science.1257553

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ciucci P, Boitani L (1998) Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in central Italy. Wildlife Soc B 26:504–514

    Google Scholar 

  • Ciucci P, Boitani L (1999) Nine-year dynamics of a wolf pack in the northern Apennines, Italy. Mammalia 63:377–384

    Google Scholar 

  • Ciucci P, Boitani L (2005) Wolf-livestock conflict in Italy: methods, state of the art, research and conservation. In: Ciucci P, Teofili C, Boitani L (eds) Grandi carnivori e zootecnia tra conflitto e coesistenza. Biol Cons Fauna, 115, pp 26-51. [In Italian with English summary]

  • Ciucci P, Boitani L, Raganella-Pelliccioni E, Rocco M, Guy I (1996) A comparison of scat-analysis methods to assess the diet of the wolf Canis lupus. Wildl Biol 2:267–278

    Google Scholar 

  • Dickman AJ, Macdonald EA, Macdonald DW (2011) A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13937–13944. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012972108

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Dorresteijn I, Milcu AI, Leventon J, Hanspach J, Fischer J (2016) Social factors mediating human–carnivore coexistence: understanding thematic strands influencing coexistence in central Romania. Ambio published online. doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0760-7

  • Dressel S, Sandström C, Ericsson G (2015) A meta-analysis of studies on attitudes toward bears and wolves across Europe 1976–2012. Conserv Biol 29:565–574. doi:10.1111/cobi.12420

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Espuno N, Lequette B, Poulle M-L, Migot P, Lebreton J-D (2004) Heterogeneous response to preventive sheep husbandry during wolf recolonization of the French Alps. Wildlife Soc B 32:1195–1208. doi:10.2193/0091-7648(2004)032[1195:HRTPSH]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferraro PJ, Pattanayak SK (2006) Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments. PLoS Biol 4:482–488. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040105

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fourli M (1999) Compensation for damage caused by bears and wolves in the European Union: experience from LIFE-Nature projects. European Commission DG XI. Environment, Nuclear Security and Civil Protection, Luxembourg

    Google Scholar 

  • Fredrickson RJ, Hedrick PW (2006) Dynamics of hybridization and introgression in red wolves and coyotes. Conserv Biol 20:1272–1283. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00401.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fritts SH, Stephenson RO, Hayes RD, Boitani L (2003) Wolves and humans. In: Mech DL, Boitani L (eds) Wolves: behavior, ecology and evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 289–316

    Google Scholar 

  • Gazzola A, Capitani C, Mattioli L, Apollonio M (2008) Livestock damage and wolf presence. J Zool 274:261–269. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00381.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gusset M, Swarner MJ, Mponwane L, Keletile K, McNutt JW (2009) Human–wildlife conflict in northern Botswana: livestock predation by endangered African wild dog Lycaon pictus and other carnivores. Oryx 43:67–72. doi:10.1017/S0030605308990475

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper EK, Paul WJ, Mech LD, Weisberg S (2008) Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota. J Wildl Manage 72:778–784. doi:10.2193/2007-273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hötte M, Bereznuk S (2001) Compensation for livestock kills by tigers and leopards in Russia. Carnivore Damage Prev News 3:6–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain S (2003) Snow leopards and local livelihoods: managing the emerging conflicts through an insurance scheme. Carnivore Damage Prev News 6:9–11

    Google Scholar 

  • ISTAT (2013) Bilancio demografico della popolazione residente per provincia e anno-dal 2011. http://www.istat.it/it/toscana/dati?q=gettableterr&dataset=DCIS_POPORESBIL1&dim=63,2,3,0&lang=2&tr=0&te=1. [In Italian]

  • Kaartinen S, Luoto M, Kojola I (2009) Carnivore-livestock conflicts: determinants of wolf (Canis lupus) depredation on sheep farms in Finland. Biodivers Conserv 18:3503–3517. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9657-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaczensky P (1999) Large carnivore depredation on livestock in Europe. Ursus 11:59–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaczensky P, Chapron G, von Arx M, Huber D, Andrén H, Linnell J (eds) (2013) Status, management and distribution of large carnivores—bear, lynx, wolf & wolverine—in Europe. Prepared for the European Commission. IUCN/SSC Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe. http://www.lcie.org/Publications. Accessed 15 Sept 2015

  • Kaltenborn BP, Bjerke T, Vittersø J (1999) Attitudes toward large carnivores among sheep farmers, wildlife managers, and research biologists in Norway. Hum Dimens Wildl 4:57–73. doi:10.1080/10871209909359157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kleiman DG, Reading RP, Miller BJ et al (2000) Improving the evaluation of conservation programs. Conserv Biol 14:356–365. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98553.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lescureux N, Linnell JDC (2010) Knowledge and perceptions of Macedonian hunters and herders: the influence of species specific ecology of bears, wolves, and lynx. Hum Ecol 38:389–399. doi:10.1007/s10745-010-9326-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liberg O, Chapron G, Wabakken P, Pedersen HC, Hobbs NT, Sand H (2011) Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe. Proc R Soc B 279:910–915. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1275

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Linnell JDC (2013) From conflict to coexistence? Insights from multi-disciplinary research into the relationships between people, large carnivores and institutions. Prepared for the European Commission. IUCN/SSC Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe. http://www.lcie.org/Publications. Accessed 15 Sept 2015

  • Linnell JDC, Odden J, Smith ME, Aanes R, Swenson JE (1999) Large carnivores that kill livestock: do “problem individuals” really exist? Wildlife Soc B 27:698–705

    Google Scholar 

  • Linnell JDC, Odden J, Mertens A (2012) Mitigation methods for conflicts associated with carnivore depredation on livestock. In: Boitani L, Powell RA (eds) Carnivore ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 314–332. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199558520.003.0014

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • López-Bao JV, Kaczensky P, Linnell JDC, Boitani L, Chapron G (2015) Carnivore coexistence: wilderness not required. Science 348:871–872. doi:10.1126/science.348.6237.871-b

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lovari S, Sforzi A, Scala C, Fico R (2007) Mortality parameters of the wolf in Italy: does the wolf keep himself from the door? J Zool 272:117–124. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00260.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maclennan SD, Groom RJ, Macdonald DW, Frank LG (2009) Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biol Conserv 142:2419–2427. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.12.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madhusudan MD (2003) Living amidst large wildlife: livestock and crop depredation by large mammals in the interior villages of Bhadra Tiger Reserve, South India. Environ Manage 31:466–475. doi:10.1007/s00267-002-2790-8

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Majić A, Marino Taussig de Bodonia A, Huber Đ, Bunnefeld N (2011) Dynamics of public attitudes toward bears and the role of bear hunting in Croatia. Biol Conserv 144:3018–3027. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.09.005

  • Marino A, Ricci S (2012) Indagine ex-ante sullo stato di conoscenza e consapevolezza sul problema dell’ibridazione. Analisi delle opinioni dei portatori d’interesse nei confronti del lupo, dell’ibrido e del cane vagante in Provincia di Grosseto. Technical Report Action A7 LIFE10NAT/IT/265 IBRIWOLF. http://www.ibriwolf.it/it/content/download. Accessed 15 Sept 2015. [In Italian]

  • Mattioli L, Apollonio M, Mazzarone V, Centofanti E (1995) Wolf food habits and wild ungulate availability in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, Italy. Acta Theriol (Warsz) 40:387–402. doi:10.4098/AT.arch.95-36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mattioli L, Capitani C, Avanzinelli E, Bertelli I, Gazzola A, Apollonio M (2004) Predation by wolves (Canis lupus) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in north-eastern Apennine, Italy. J Zool 264:249–258. doi:10.1017/S095283690400576X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mech LD (1995) The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations. Conserv Biol 9:270–278. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9020270.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mech LD (1996) A new era for carnivore conservation. Wildlife Soc B 24:397–401

    Google Scholar 

  • Miquelle D, Nikolaev I, Goodrich J, Litvinov B, Smirnov E, Suvorov E (2005) Searching for the coexistence recipe: a case study of conflicts between people and tigers in the Russian far east. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 305–322

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Mishra C (1997) Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environ Conserv 24:338–343. doi:10.1017/S0376892997000441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mishra C, Allen P, McCarthy T, Madhusudan MD, Bayarjargal A, Prins HHT (2003) The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conserv Biol 17:1512–1520. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00092.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison C (2012) Carnivores and conflict: a community approach to carnivore compensation. Report 1: summary of carnivore compensation programs. Prepared for: Waterton Biosphere Reserve Association Carnivore Working Group. Master’s thesis, Simon Fraser University

  • Muchapondwa E (2003) The economics of community-based wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe. Doctoral thesis, Götenborg University

  • Muñoz-Fuentes V, Darimont CT, Paquet PC, Leonard JA (2010) The genetic legacy of extirpation and re-colonization in Vancouver Island wolves. Conserv Genet 11:547–556. doi:10.1007/s10592-009-9974-1)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Musiani M, Paquet PC (2004) The practices of wolf persecution, protection, and restoration in Canada and the United States. Bioscience 54:50–60. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0050:TPOWPP]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Musiani M, Mamo C, Boitani L et al (2003) Wolf depredation trends and the use of fladry barriers to protect livestock in western North America. Conserv Biol 17:1538–1547. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00063.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Naughton-Treves L, Grossberg R, Treves A (2003) Paying for tolerance: rural citizens’ attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conserv Biol 17:1500–1511. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00060.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson F (2009) Developing payments for ecosystem services approaches to carnivore conservation. Hum Dimens Wildl 14:381–392. doi:10.1080/10871200903045228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nyhus P, Fischer H, Madden F, Osofsky S (2003) Taking the bite out of wildlife damage: the challenges of wildlife compensation schemes. Conserv Pract 4:37–43. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4629.2003.tb00061.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nyhus PJ, Osofsky SA, Ferraro P, Madden F, Fische H (2005) Bearing the costs of human-wildlife conflict: the challenges of compensation schemes. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 107–121

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Ogada MO, Woodroffe R, Oguge NO, Frank LG (2003) Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conserv Biol 17:1521–1530. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00061.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olson ER, Stenglein JL, Shelley V et al (2015) Pendulum swings in wolf management led to conflict, illegal kills, and a legislated wolf hunt. Conserv Lett 8:351–360. doi:10.1111/conl.12141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Psaroudas S (2007) Why public funds should support prevention & compensation. In: Proceedings of the international conference: large carnivores and agriculture comparing experiences across Italy and Europe. LIFE 04NAT/IT/000144-COEX, pp 30-31

  • R Developmental Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for the statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org.

  • Rauset GR, Andrén H, Swenson JE, Samelius G, Segerström P, Zedrosser A, Persson J (2016) National parks in northern Sweden as refuges for illegal killing of large carnivores. Conserv Lett, Early view. doi:10.1111/conl.12226

    Google Scholar 

  • Redpath SM, Young J, Evely A et al (2013) Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends Ecol Evol 28:100–109. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.021

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Redpath SM, Gutiérrez RJ, Wood KA, Sidaway R, Young JC (2015) An introduction to conservation conflicts. In: Redpath SM, Gutiérrez RJ, Wood KA, Young JC (eds) Conflicts in conservation: navigating towards solutions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 3–18

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rigg R, Finđo S, Wechselberger M, Gorman ML, Sillero-Zubiri C, Macdonald DW (2011) Mitigating carnivore–livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272–280. doi:10.1017/S0030605310000074

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rutledge LY, White BN, Row JR, Patterson BR (2011) Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes. Ecol Evol 2:19–33. doi:10.1002/ece3.61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saberwal VK, Gibbs JP, Chellam R, Johnsingh AJT (1994) Lion-human conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conserv Biol 8:501–507. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08020501.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salvatori V, Linnell J (2005) Report on the conservation status and threats for wolf (Canis lupus) in Europe. Council of Europe Report T-PVS/Inf (2005) 16, Strasbourg

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwerdtner K, Gruber B (2007) A conceptual framework for damage compensation schemes. Biol Conserv 134:354–360. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skogen K (2003) Adapting adaptive management to a cultural understanding of land use conflicts. Soc Nat Resour 16:435–450. doi:10.1080/08941920309180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith DW, Bangs EE, Oakleaf JK et al (2010) Survival of colonizing wolves in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, 1982–2004. J Wildl Manage 74:620–634. doi:10.2193/2008-584

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swenson JE, Andrén H (2005) A tale of two countries: large carnivore depredation and compensation schemes in Sweden and Norway. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 323–339

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Tamagnini D, Marino A, Pollutri A (2014) Indagine ex-ante sul livello di conoscenza e gli atteggiamenti verso la presenza del lupo in Italia. Technical Report Action A12 LIFE11 NAT/IT/069 MedWolf. http://www.medwolf.eu/index.php/avanzamento-progetto.html. Accessed 15 Sept 2015. [In Italian]

  • Treves A, Bruskotter J (2014) Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science 344:476–477. doi:10.1126/science.1252690

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Treves A, Naughton-Treves L (2005) Evaluating lethal control in the management of human–wildlife conflict. In: Woodroffe R, Thirgood S, Rabinowitz A (eds) People and wildlife: conflict or coexistence? Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 86–106

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Treves A, Wallace RB, Naughton-Treves L, Morales A (2006) Co-managing human–wildlife conflicts: a review. Hum Dimens Wildl 11:383–396. doi:10.1080/10871200600984265

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treves A, Jurewicz RL, Naughton-Treves L, Wilcove DS (2009) The price of tolerance: wolf damage payments after recovery. Biodivers Conserv 18:4003–4021. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9695-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treves A, Naughton-Treves L, Shelley V (2013) Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves. Conserv Biol 27:315–323. doi:10.1111/cobi.12009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vaske JJ (2008) Survey research and analysis: applications in parks, recreation and human dimensions. Venture Publishing, State College

    Google Scholar 

  • Vitali C (2014) A frame-analytical perspective on conflict between people and an expanding wolf Canis lupus population in central Italy. Oryx 48:575–583. doi:10.1017/S0030605313000276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vktersø J, Bjerke T, Kaltenborn BP (1999) Attitudes toward large carnivores among sheep farmers experiencing different degrees of depredation. Hum Dimens Wildl 4:20–35. doi:10.1080/10871209909359142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wielgus RB, Peebles KA (2014) Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations PLoS One 9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113505

  • Woodroffe R, Redpath SM (2015) When the hunter becomes the hunted. Science 348:1312–1314. doi:10.1126/science.aaa8465

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Young JC, Marzano M, White RM et al (2010) The emergence of biodiversity conflicts from biodiversity impacts: characteristics and management strategies. Biodivers Conserv 19:3973–3990. doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9941-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zabel A, Holm-Muller K (2008) Conservation performance payments for carnivore conservation in Sweden. Conserv Biol 22:247–251. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00898.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zabel A, Roe B (2009) Optimal design of pro-conservation incentives. Ecol Econ 69:126–134. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.08.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimen E, Boitani L (1975) Number and distribution of wolves in Italy. Zeitschrift fur Saugetierekunde 40:102–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Zinn HC, Manfredo MJ, Vaske JJ, Wittmann K (1998) Using normative beliefs to determine the acceptability of wildlife management actions. Soc Nat Resour 11:649–662. doi:10.1080/08941929809381109

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank A. Bucci, M. Gandolfi, U. Ottavi, E. Passalacqua, D. Petrucci, A. Pollini, and L. Vielmi who carried out the interviews with the sheep owners of the Province of Grosseto. The Department of Rural Development of the Province of Grosseto, and particularly D. Petrucci, provided data on the number and characteristics of the owners active in territory, the prevention measures funded during the insurance period, the damages claimed to and registered by the Veterinary Service of the National Health Authority (ASL), and the damages claimed by insured livestock owners during the insurance period. The Department of Hunting, Fishing, and Environmental Policy of the Tuscany Region provided additional data on damage claims during the entire period of the study. The Tuscan Association for the Defence of Agriculture (Co.Di.Pr.A.) provided information on damage claims during the insurance period. The work was undertaken within the LIFE MEDWOLF project (LIFE11NAT/IT/069) co-funded by the European Commission within the LIFE program.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paolo Ciucci.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Marino, A., Braschi, C., Ricci, S. et al. Ex post and insurance-based compensation fail to increase tolerance for wolves in semi-agricultural landscapes of central Italy. Eur J Wildl Res 62, 227–240 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-016-1001-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-016-1001-5

Keywords

  • Conflict management
  • Ex post compensation
  • Human-wildlife conflict
  • Insurance compensation
  • Livestock depredation
  • Wolf