Many deer populations in Europe and North America have increased in abundance over the last decades. The increasing populations potentially entail both ecological and economic challenges and opportunities, but in practice we still know little about the extent to which these opportunities are being exploited in different management systems. The Norwegian red deer population has increased in density and expanded rapidly since the 1950s. Traditionally, red deer hunting has been undertaken by the local landowner and his relatives and friends. The present large population raises the question whether attracting other hunters could provide a higher economic return for the landowners and, if so, if they are interested in providing such hunting opportunities. We designed a survey to learn more about the landowners, both with respect to the present level of hunting income as well as economic costs of, for example, forest and agricultural damage; we also sought to understand their interest in increasing their income from red deer hunting and potential obstacles to realizing such an increased economic benefit. The results indicate that landowners on average think that red deer populations on their land result in higher costs than income but are nevertheless satisfied with the way things are. This highlights that increased numbers of deer need not automatically lead to more income for landowners and that the potential for income may be hindered by cultural factors such as reluctance to allow access to non-local hunters.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
See acknowledgment for members of the group
The full questionnaire is available online at: http://www.toh.hist.no/~jonoo/.
1 EUR = 7.8 NOK (Aug. 2011)
In Norway, it is permitted to use sporting dogs for the red deer hunt, and it is also required that the hunter has an authorized sporting dog available to search for wounded red deer (see Putman (2011)).
Note that if we estimate average figures bases on the mid-point of each reported reply interval, the net loss becomes NOK 11,400 (EUR 1,462).
Available online at http://www.toh.hist.no/~jonoo/
Andersen R, Lund E, Solberg E, Saether B-E (2010) Ungulates and their management in Norway. In: Apollonio M, Andersen R, Putman R (eds) European ungulates and their management in the 21st century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 14–36
Apollonio M, Andersen R, Putman RJ (eds) (2010) European ungulates and their management in the 21st century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Berganutvalget (1982) Befolkningens adgang til jakt i Norge. Innstilling fra et utvalg nedsatt av Direktoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk 5. December 1977
Gill R (1990) Monitoring the status of European and North American cervids. Nairobi: The Global Environment Monitoring System Information Series No. 8, United Nations Environment Programme, 277 pages
Gordon J, Hester AJ, Festa-Bianchet M (2004) The management of wild large herbivores to meet economic, conservation and environmental objectives. J Appl Ecol 41:1021–1031
Gujarati DN (1995) Basic econometrics, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York
Horne P, Petäjistö L (2003) Preference for alternative moose management regimes among Finnish landowners: a choice experiment approach. Land Econ 79(4):472–482
Irvine R et al (2010) Collaborative frameworks in land management: a case study on integrated deer management: full research report. ESRC End of Award Report, RES-227-25-0014. ESRC, Swindon
Johansson P-O, Kriström B, Mattsson L (1988) How is the willingness to pay for moose hunting affected by the stock of moose? An empirical study of moose hunting in the county of Västerbotten. J Environ Manage 26:163–171
Kenward RE, Putman RJ (2011) Ungulate management in Europe: towards a sustainable future. In: Putman RJ, Apollonio M, Andersen R (eds) Ungulate management in Europe: problems and practices. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 376–395
MacMillan DC (2004) Tradeable hunting obligations—a new approach to regulating red deer numbers in the Scottish Highlands? J Environ Manage 71:261–270
MacMillan DC, Leitch K (2008) Conservation with a gun: hunting and ecosystem restoration in the Scottish Highlands. Hum Ecol 36(4):473–484
MacMillan DC, Phillip S (2010) Can economic incentives resolve conservation conflicts: the case of wild deer management and habitat conservation in the Scottish Highlands. Hum Ecol 38:485–493
MacMillan DC, Leitch K, Wightman A, Higgins P (2010) The management and role of highland sporting estates in the early 21st century: the owner's view of a unique but contested form of land use. Scott Geogr J 126(1):24–40
Mattsson L (1994) At kvantifisera viltets jaktvärde. Arbetsrapport 192, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Umea
McShea WJ, Underwood HB (1997) The science of overabundance. Deer ecology and population management. Smithsonian Inst, Washington, p 402
Milner JM, Bonenfant C, Mysterud A, Gaillard J-M, Csányi S, Stenseth NC (2006) Temporal and spatial development of red deer harvesting in Europe—biological and cultural factors. J Appl Ecol 43:721–734
Mysterud A (2004) Temporal variation in the number of car-killed red deer Cervus elaphus in Norway. Wildl Biol 10:203–211
Mysterud A (2006) The concept of overgrazing and its role in management of large herbivores. Wildl Biol 12:129–141
Mysterud A, Loe LE, Zimmermann B, Bischof R, Veiberg V, and Meisingset E (2011) Partial migration in expanding red deer populations at northern latitudes—a role for density dependence? Oikos 120(12):1817–1825
Putman RJ (2011) A review of the legal and administrative systems governing management of large herbivores in Europe. In: Putman RJ, Apollonio M, Andersen R (eds) Ungulate management in Europe: problems and practices. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 54–79
Reimoser F, Putman RJ (2011) Impact of large ungulates on agriculture, forestry and conservation habitats in Europe. In: Putman RJ, Apollonio M, Andersen R (eds) Ungulate management in Europe: problems and practices. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 144–191
Statistics Norway (2010) Focus on hunting and angling. http://www.ssb.no/jakt_fiske_en/
Stewart MB (1983) On least squares estimates when the dependent variable is grouped. Rev Econ Stud 50(4):737–753
Thorvaldsen P, Øpstad SL, Aarhus A, Meisingset E, Austarheim Å, Lauvstad H, Mo M (2010) Kostar hjorten meir enn han smakar? Del 1: Berekning av kostnad og nytteverdi av hjort i Eikås storvald i Jølster kommune. Bioforsk Rapport 5(59)
We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. This study was funded by the Research Council of Norway (“Natur og næring” program; project no. 179370/I10—“HjortAreal”). We are grateful to the group of the HjortAreal project for advice, in particular Vidar Holthe on behalf of Norges Skogeierforbund giving access to member lists in the forestry, and helpful advice from Anders Skonhoft, Vebjørn Veiberg, Erling Meisingset, Arve Aarhus, and Leif Egil Loe.
Communicated by C. Gortázar
About this article
Cite this article
Olaussen, J.O., Mysterud, A. Red deer hunting—commercializing versus availability. Eur J Wildl Res 58, 597–607 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-012-0610-x
- Red deer hunting
- Landowner survey
- Hunting income
- Browsing and grazing costs