European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 56, Issue 5, pp 757–764 | Cite as

Effects of azaperone and haloperidol on the stress response of drive-net captured Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica)

  • Gregorio MentaberreEmail author
  • Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
  • Encarnación Casas-Díaz
  • Laura Fernández-Sirera
  • Ignasi Marco
  • Santiago Lavín
Original Paper


The physical capture of wild ungulates is performed for different purposes when anesthesia in field conditions is not possible or advisable. The use of tranquilizers may contribute to improved welfare of captured animals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of azaperone and haloperidol on the stress response of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) through the evaluation of physiological, hematological, and serum biochemical parameters. Thirty-five Iberian ibexes were drive-net captured and randomly injected with azaperone (0.52 ± 0.07 mg/kg intramuscularly (IM); n = 10), haloperidol (0.17 ± 0.04 mg/kg IM; n = 10), or saline (0.5 mL IM; n = 15) and physically restrained for 3 h. The variability of heart rate was lower in the azaperone-treated ibexes, suggesting a calming effect, and erythrocyte and biochemical parameters indicated vasodilation, splenic sequestration, hemodilution, improvement of renal perfusion, and a protective effect on muscle as a result of smooth muscle relaxation induced by azaperone. Haloperidol showed poorer results, maybe due to insufficient dosage. These results support the suitability of using azaperone in capture operations of Iberian ibex in order to reduce stress and prevent its adverse effects.


Iberian ibex Haloperidol Azaperone Drive-net capture Acute stress 



We are grateful to the staff of the National Game Reserve of Tortosa i Beseit, especially to its former director, Mr. Jordi Romeva, and to the Cos d’Agents Rurals (Rangers brigade) of Catalonia for their invaluable collaboration in facilitating and capturing the animals. This research has been supported as research project CGL2004-00330/BOS of the Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT). A native English-speaking instructor at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona provided editorial assistance. The experiments in this study comply with the current Spanish laws.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregorio Mentaberre
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
    • 1
  • Encarnación Casas-Díaz
    • 1
  • Laura Fernández-Sirera
    • 1
  • Ignasi Marco
    • 1
  • Santiago Lavín
    • 1
  1. 1.Servei d’Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Facultat de VeterinàriaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBellaterraSpain

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