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Comparing data of different survey methods for sustainable wildlife management in hunting areas: the case of Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania


Cost–benefit considerations of wildlife monitoring are essential, particularly, in areas outside national park boundaries, where resources for conducting wildlife censuses are scarce, but that, at the same time, are subject to high pressure for wildlife utilization, such as hunting. Large mammal survey data from various sources were collated and analyzed to investigate which methods are best suited for monitoring purposes at low cost in the Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania. Our results indicate that primary data (from aerial and road transects counts) that involve direct species observations, although sometimes very expensive, are required for establishing the status of the target species in terms of density or population size. Concomitantly, secondary data from various sources, such as interviews, hunting quota, and damage reports, obtained over wide areas and over longer periods of time, can provide important information on presence/absence and distribution of species within an area. In addition, the study revealed that hunting quotas set did not correlate with species abundance/numbers from the primary data surveys for most of the large mammals hunted within the ecosystem. For a better conservation and management of wildlife, in particular with respect to the forthcoming formation of Wildlife Management Areas, we propose an integrated approach to wildlife monitoring using primary and secondary data sources through the involvement of local people’s knowledge.

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This study was part of the Tarangire–Mayara Conservation project (TMCP) funded by USAID through WWF Tanzania Programme Office and Oikos Institute. Further support was provided by TANAPA, Wildlife Division, Hunting Companies, and local communities in the study area. Special thanks to Oikos Institute president, Dr. Rossella Rossi who coordinated the project and provided logistical support, to Janemary Ntalwila and the entire Oikos staff—Tanzania branch.

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Correspondence to Lucas A. Wauters.


Appendix 1

Hunting block quota (HBQ) of the major wildlife species in the different open areas (OA) and game-controlled areas (GCA) in the study area

Table 2 HBQ of the major wildlife species

Appendix 2

District hunting quota (HDQ) of the major wildlife species in the study area

Table 3 HDQ of the major wildlife species

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Msoffe, F., Mturi, F.A., Galanti, V. et al. Comparing data of different survey methods for sustainable wildlife management in hunting areas: the case of Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania. Eur J Wildl Res 53, 112–124 (2007).

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