European Journal of Wildlife Research

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 112–124 | Cite as

Comparing data of different survey methods for sustainable wildlife management in hunting areas: the case of Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania

  • Fortunata Msoffe
  • Fatina A. Mturi
  • Valeria Galanti
  • Wilma Tosi
  • Lucas A. Wauters
  • Guido Tosi
Original Paper


Cost–benefit considerations of wildlife monitoring are essential, particularly, in areas outside national park boundaries, where resources for conducting wildlife censuses are scarce, but that, at the same time, are subject to high pressure for wildlife utilization, such as hunting. Large mammal survey data from various sources were collated and analyzed to investigate which methods are best suited for monitoring purposes at low cost in the Tarangire–Manyara ecosystem, northern Tanzania. Our results indicate that primary data (from aerial and road transects counts) that involve direct species observations, although sometimes very expensive, are required for establishing the status of the target species in terms of density or population size. Concomitantly, secondary data from various sources, such as interviews, hunting quota, and damage reports, obtained over wide areas and over longer periods of time, can provide important information on presence/absence and distribution of species within an area. In addition, the study revealed that hunting quotas set did not correlate with species abundance/numbers from the primary data surveys for most of the large mammals hunted within the ecosystem. For a better conservation and management of wildlife, in particular with respect to the forthcoming formation of Wildlife Management Areas, we propose an integrated approach to wildlife monitoring using primary and secondary data sources through the involvement of local people’s knowledge.


Hunting quota Large mammals Survey methods Tarangire–Mayara ecosystem Wildlife Management Areas 



This study was part of the Tarangire–Mayara Conservation project (TMCP) funded by USAID through WWF Tanzania Programme Office and Oikos Institute. Further support was provided by TANAPA, Wildlife Division, Hunting Companies, and local communities in the study area. Special thanks to Oikos Institute president, Dr. Rossella Rossi who coordinated the project and provided logistical support, to Janemary Ntalwila and the entire Oikos staff—Tanzania branch.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fortunata Msoffe
    • 1
  • Fatina A. Mturi
    • 2
  • Valeria Galanti
    • 3
  • Wilma Tosi
    • 3
  • Lucas A. Wauters
    • 4
  • Guido Tosi
    • 4
  1. 1.Tanzania National ParksArushaTanzania
  2. 2.Department of Zoology and Marine BiologyUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  3. 3.Istituto OIKOS, NGOMilanItaly
  4. 4.Department “Environment-Health-Safety”Insubria UniversityVarese (VA)Italy

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