European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 133, Issue 2, pp 355–367 | Cite as

Tree microhabitats at the stand scale in montane beech–fir forests: practical information for taxa conservation in forestry

  • Laurent Larrieu
  • Alain Cabanettes
  • Antoine Brin
  • Christophe Bouget
  • Marc Deconchat
Original Paper


Recent studies have highlighted the key role of tree microhabitats in forest habitat complexity and have suggested using them as surrogates for local taxonomic biodiversity. However, few practical guidelines have been published to help foresters in managing microhabitats at the stand scale. This paper provides scientific background information to help to develop such guidelines. We surveyed trees in nine long-unmanaged beech–fir forests to model tree microhabitat occurrence and diversity at the tree level. Data were upscaled to a size range of tree cluster, i.e., at the tree population scale, by aggregating observed values of microhabitat occurrence. Accumulation curves were used to estimate the minimum number of trees required to make all the microhabitat types available. Two managed forests were then studied to quantify management effects on microhabitats. Diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree species, respectively, explained 16 and 10 % of the variations in the number of microhabitat-bearing trees, and 21 and 10 % for the number of microhabitat types. Beech trees and firs with a dbh of less than dbh 50 and 65 cm, respectively, did not ensure the provision of all microhabitat types. At least 20 ha of unmanaged forest were necessary to conserve all the microhabitat types. Current management practices have reduced the number of microhabitat-bearing beeches both by reducing the number of very large trees (dbh > 67.5 cm) and by tree selection within mid-size diameters. For fir, only the logging of very large trees (dbh > 62.5 cm) negatively affected microhabitats. These figures may inspire guidelines for conservation-friendly forestry.


Fagus sylvatica Abies alba Mixed forest Sustainable forest management Upscaling 

Supplementary material

10342_2013_767_MOESM1_ESM.tif (176 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 176 kb)
10342_2013_767_MOESM2_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurent Larrieu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alain Cabanettes
    • 1
  • Antoine Brin
    • 3
  • Christophe Bouget
    • 4
  • Marc Deconchat
    • 1
  1. 1.INRA, UMR1201 DYNAFORCastanet Tolosan CedexFrance
  2. 2.CNPF/IDFAuzeville TolosaneFrance
  3. 3.Purpan Engineering School, INPT/INRA, UMR 1201 DYNAFORUniversité de ToulouseToulouse Cedex 3France
  4. 4.UR EFNOIrsteaNogent-sur-VernissonFrance

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