European Journal of Forest Research

, Volume 131, Issue 6, pp 1991–2003 | Cite as

Integration of fungal production in forest management using a multi-criteria method

  • Jorge Aldea
  • Fernando Martínez-Peña
  • Luis Diaz-BalteiroEmail author
Original Paper


Some non-timber forestry products, such as mushrooms, have not typically been included in forest management plans, creating a scenario whereby timber production is the main objective and fungal resources are an afterthought. However, in certain forests, wild mushrooms reach a significant level of production. This paper researches a strategic forest management plan that would include the production of both timber and mushrooms as principal objectives while still adhering to constraints normally considered within forest management. A case study is provided featuring two main groups of edible wild mushrooms, where the two aforementioned objectives have been optimised individually. Lacking a satisfactory solution for the decision-maker, a model based on multi-criteria decision analysis (compromise programming) has been constructed to yield more attractive solutions. Information regarding mushrooms is based on the actual amount collected in the forest and not on potential production. Measured in monetary terms, mushroom production can be easily compared with timber production. Income associated with mushroom production is equal to approximately 20 % of that generated by timber throughout the planning horizon when final inventory and regulation constraints are imposed.


Edible wild mushrooms Compromise programming Forest management Strategic planning 



This research has been carried out thanks to (amongst others) the Interreg IVB SUDOE SOE1/P2/E069 Micosylva project. Special thanks also to the staff of CIF Valonsadero involved in sample plot network maintenance and mushroom picking in Pinar Grande over the years. Comments made by Professor Carlos Romero from Technical University of Madrid have greatly improved the presentation and accuracy of the paper. Thanks are given to two referees for their valuable comments. The work of Luis Diaz-Balteiro was funded by the Autonomous Community of Madrid under projects Q100705066 and QM100705026 and by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science under project AGL2011-25825. Thanks also go to Diana Badder and PRS for editing the English.


  1. Alexander SJ, Pilz D, Webber NS, Brown E, Rockwell VA (2002) Mushrooms, trees and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the Pacific Northwest. Environ Manag 30:129–141. doi: 10.1007/s00267-002-2610-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballestero E, Romero C (1991) A theorem connecting utility function optimization and compromise programming. Oper Res Lett 10:421–427. doi: 10.1016/0167-6377(91)90045-Q CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonet JA, Pukkala T, Fischer CR, Palahí M, Martínez de Aragón J, Colinas C (2008) Empirical models for predicting the production of wild mushrooms in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the Central Pyrenees. Ann For Sci 65:206. doi: 10.1051/forest:2007089
  4. Bonet JA, Palahí M, Colinas C, Pukkala T, Fischer CR, Miina J, Martínez de Aragón J (2010) Modelling the production and species richness of wild mushrooms in pine forests of Central Pyrenees in north-eastern Spain. Can J For Res 40:347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bravo F, Diaz-Balteiro L (2004) Evaluation of new silvicultural alternatives for Scots pine stands in northern Spain. Ann For Sci 61:163–169. doi: 10.1051/forest:2004008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bravo F, Pando V, Ordónez C, Lizarralde I (2008) Modelling ingrowth in mediterranean pine forests: a case study from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Spain. Invest Agr Sist Recur For 17:250–260Google Scholar
  7. Caparrós A, Campos P, Montero G (2001) Applied multiple use forest accounting in the Guadarrama pinewoods (Spain). Invest Agr Sist Recur For 10:91–108Google Scholar
  8. De Frutos P, Martínez-Peña F, Ortega-Martínez P, Esteban S (2009) Estimating the social benefits of recreational harvesting of edible wild mushrooms using travel cost methods. Invest Agr Sist Recur For 18:235–246Google Scholar
  9. Del Rio M, Montero G (2001) Modelo de simulación de claras en masas de Pinus sylvestris L. Monografías INIA: Forestal nº 3, MadridGoogle Scholar
  10. Diaz-Balteiro L, Romero C (1998) Modeling timber harvest scheduling problems with multiple criteria: an application in Spain. For Sci 44:47–57Google Scholar
  11. Diaz-Balteiro L, Romero C (2003) Forest management optimisation models when carbon captured is considered: a goal programming approach. For Ecol Manage 174:447–457. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00075-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diaz-Balteiro L, Romero C (2008) Making forestry decisions with multiple criteria: a review and an assessment. For Ecol Manage 255:3222–3241. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diaz-Balteiro L, Álvarez A, Oria de Rueda JA (2003) Integración de la producción fúngica en la gestión forestal. Aplicación al monte “Urcido” (Zamora). Invest Agr Sist Recur For 12:5–19Google Scholar
  14. Diaz-Balteiro L, González-Pachón J, Romero C (2009) Forest management with multiple criteria and multiple stakeholders: an application to two public forests in Spain. Scand J For Res 24:87–93. doi: 10.1080/02827580802687440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Egli S (2011) Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity and productivity—an indicator of forest health? Ann For Sci 68:81–88. doi: 10.1007/s13595-010-0009-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egli S, Ayer F, Peter M, Eilmann B, Rigling A (2010) Is forest mushroom productivity driven by tree growth? Results from a thinning experiment. Ann For Sci 67:509. doi: 10.1051/forest/2010011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Everett Y (2001) Participatory research for adaptive ecosystem management: a case of non-timber forest products. J Sustain For 13:335–357Google Scholar
  18. Johnson KN, Scheurman HL (1977) Techniques for prescribing optimal timber harvest and investment under different objectives—discussion and synthesis. For Sci (Monogr) 18:1–32Google Scholar
  19. Kauserud H, Stige LC, Vik JO, Okland RH, Hoiland K, Stenseth NC (2008) Mushroom fruiting and climate change. P Natl Acad Sci USA 105:3811–3814. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0709037105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krcmar E, van Kooten GC, Vertinsky I (2005) Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multiple tradeoffs: compromising on economic, carbon and structural diversity objectives. Ecol Model 185:451–468. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lucas JA, Barrio JM (1996) 8ª Revisión del Proyecto de Ordenación del monte ‘Pinar Grande’ nº 172 de Soria y su Tierra. Documento interno de la Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio. Dirección General del Medio Natural. Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid (Spain)Google Scholar
  22. Luoma DL, Eberhart J, Molina R, Amaranthus MP (2004) Response of ectomycorrhizal fungus sporocarp production to varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention. For Ecol Manage 202:337–354. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.07.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martínez de Aragón J, Bonet JA, Fischer CR, Colinas C (2007) Productivity of ectomycorrhizal and selected edible saprotrophic fungi in pine forest of the pre-Pyrenees Mountains, Spain: predictive equations for forest management of mycological resources. For Ecol Manag 252:239–256. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.06.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Martínez de Aragón J, Riera P, Giergiczny M, Colinas C (2011) Value of wild mushroom picking as an environmental service. For Pol Econom 13:419–424. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2011.05.003 Google Scholar
  25. Martínez-Peña F (2003) Producción y aprovechamiento de Boletus edulis Bull.:Fr. en un bosque de Pinus sylvestris L. Consejería de Medio Ambiente. Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid (Spain)Google Scholar
  26. Martínez-Peña F, Gómez Conejo R, Ortega-Martínez P (2007) Micodata: Sistema de información geográfica sobre producción, aprovechamiento y ordenación del recurso micológico en Castilla y León.
  27. Martínez-Peña F, Ágreda T, Águeda B, Ortega-Martínez P, Fernández-Toirán LM (2011a) Edible sporocarp production by age class in a Scots pine stand in Northern Spain. Mycorrhiza 22:167–174. doi: 10.1007/s00572-011-0389-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martínez-Peña F, Oria de Rueda JA, Ágreda T (2011b) Manual para la gestión del recurso micológico forestal en Castilla y León. SOMACYL- Junta de Castilla y León, Soria (Spain)Google Scholar
  29. Martínez-Peña F, de-Miguel S, Pukkala T, Bonet JA, Ortega-Martínez P, Aldea J, Martínez de Aragón J (2012). Yield models for ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in Pinus sylvestris forests with special focus on Boletus edulis and Lactarius group deliciosus. For Ecol Manage 282:63–69. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.06.034
  30. Mattsson L, Li C (1993) The non-timber value of northern Swedish forests: an economic analysis. Scand J For Res 8:426–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Montero G, Rojo A, Alía R (1992) Determinación del turno de Pinus sylvestris L. en el Sistema Central. Montes 29:42–47Google Scholar
  32. Ortega-Martínez P, Martínez-Peña F (2008) A sampling method for estimating sporocarps production of wild edible mushrooms of social and economic interest. Invest Agr Sist Recur For 17:228–237Google Scholar
  33. Ortega-Martínez P, Águeda B, Fernández-Toirán LM, Martínez-Peña F (2011) Tree age influences on the development of edible ectomycorrhizal fungi sporocarps in Pinus sylvestris stands. Mycorrhiza 21:65–70. doi: 10.1007/s00572-010-0320-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Palahí M, Pukkala T (2003) Optimising the management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Spain based on individual-tree models. Ann For Sci 60:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Palahí M, Pukkala T, Bonet JA, Colinas C, Fischer CR, Martínez de Aragón J (2009) Effect of the inclusion of mushroom values on the optimal management of even-aged pine stands of Catalonia. For Sci 55:503–511. doi: 10.1051/forest:2003002 Google Scholar
  36. Peredo H, Oliva M, Huber A (1983) Environmental factors determining the distribution of Suillus luteus fructifications in Pinus radiata grazing-forest plantations. Plant Soil 71:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pilz D, Brodie FD, Alexander S, Molina R (1998) Relative value of chanterelles and timber as commercial forest products. Ambio Special Report 9:14–16Google Scholar
  38. Pilz D, Molina R, Mayo J (2006) Effects of thinning young forest on chanterelle mushroom production. J For 104(1):9–14Google Scholar
  39. Poff B, Tecle A, Neary DG, Geils B (2010) Compromise programming in forest management. J Arizona Nevada Acad Sci 42:44–60. doi: 10.2181/036.042.0107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rojo A, Montero G (1996) El pino silvestre en la Sierra de Guadarrama. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, MadridGoogle Scholar
  41. Romero C, Rehman T (2003) Multiple criteria analysis for agricultural decisions. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  42. Romero C, Tamiz M, Jones DF (1998) Goal programming, compromise programming and reference point method formulations: linkages and utility interpretations. J Oper Res Soc 49:986–991. doi: 10.2307/3010172 Google Scholar
  43. Savoie JM, Largeteau ML (2010) Production of edible mushrooms in forest: trends in development of a mycosilviculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:971–979. doi: 10.1007/s00253-010-3022-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tecle A, Shrestha BP, Duckstein L (1998) A multiobjective decision support system for multiresource forest management. Group Decis Negot 7:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Voces R, Diaz-Balteiro L, Alfranca O (2012) Demand for wild edible mushrooms. The case of Lactarius deliciosus in Barcelona (Spain). J Forest Econom 18:47–60. doi: 10.1016/j.jfe.2011.06.003 Google Scholar
  46. Williams HP (1993) Model building in mathematical programming. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  47. Yu PL (1973) A class of solutions for group decision problems. Manage Sci 19:936–946. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.19.8.936 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zeleny M (1974) A concept of compromise solutions and the method of the displaced ideal. Comput Oper Res 1:479–496. doi: 10.1016/0305-0548(74)90064-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Aldea
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fernando Martínez-Peña
    • 2
    • 3
  • Luis Diaz-Balteiro
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.ETS Ingenieros de MontesMadridSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Forestal de Valonsadero, Consejería de Medio AmbienteSoriaSpain
  3. 3.Polígono Industrial “Las Casas” Calle CSoriaSpain

Personalised recommendations