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Root anchorage of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Endl.) under the combined loading of wind and rapidly supplied water on soil: analyses based on tree-pulling experiments

Abstract

Wind damage in Japan is mainly caused by typhoons (i.e., tropical cyclones), which are characterized by intensive heavy rainfall and strong winds. In this study, we conducted tree-pulling experiments on two sites to find out whether rapidly supplied water on the soil would affect stability of root anchorage of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Endl.), as expected. For the experiments, we first supplied several quantities of water around the target trees, and then they were pulled down using a wire winch. On study site 1 (Kamiatago experimental forest), we applied general tree-pulling experiments (no water supply) in 2008 and six different irrigation treatments around the target trees in 2009. On study site 2 (Chiyoda experimental forest), we applied one irrigation treatment in 2009. As a result, five trees were uprooted and two were broken in 2008, and all nine trees were uprooted in 2009 on study site 1, regardless of irrigation treatment. On study site 2, two trees pulled down after 4 h of water supply were ruptured at the stem base, opposite to two trees pulled down immediately after supplying water. The water content below the root plate significantly affected root anchorage and more specifically, the maximum turning moment, stem angle at the maximum force, and stiffness index. Moreover, water inside the root plate increased root anchorage at the beginning of a tree failure process. However, it also reduced the root plate area of the hinge side. Conversely, high water content below the root plate decreased root anchorage.

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Taichi Kajikawa and Hayahito Yazawa, forestry technicians in the experimental forests of Shizuoka University, and Yuusuke Kawai and Yoshikazu Adachi in Shizuoka University, who gave tremendous support to us for the tree-pulling experiments. We also would like to thank to Drs. Takashi Yoshitake and Ushio Kurokawa, forestry researchers in Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, who kindly helped us for conducting the experiments in Chiyoda forests. This study was funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science as a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research for “Disturbance and recovery of canopy associated with wind damage risk (Research Project Number: 20380088)”.

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Correspondence to K. Kamimura.

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This article belongs to the special issue ‘Wind Effects on Trees’.

Communicated by J. Bauhus.

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Kamimura, K., Kitagawa, K., Saito, S. et al. Root anchorage of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Endl.) under the combined loading of wind and rapidly supplied water on soil: analyses based on tree-pulling experiments. Eur J Forest Res 131, 219–227 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-011-0508-2

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Keywords

  • Tree-pulling experiments
  • Wind damage
  • Root anchorage
  • Water content in the soil