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Morphological Characterization of Autochthonous Apple Genetic Resources in Montenegro

Morphologische Charakterisierung autochthoner Apfelsorten als genetische Ressourcen in 49 Montenegro

Abstract

Autochthonous apple varieties are still keeping their importance in Montenegro and they are valuable resources as human food and an important part of rural landscape. The aim of this study was to study and preserve morphological diversity of 30 autochthonous apple varieties in Montenegro between 2008 and 2010. We found a great variation on blooming period and maturation time among varieties and classified them as very early, early, mid and late for blooming and early, middle, late and very late for maturation. Fruit weight varied in wide range from 40.76 g to 206.74 g and ‘Krupnaja’, ‘Krstovača’ and ‘Babovača’ produced biggest fruits (191.83–206.74 g). Soluble solid content (SSC) varied between 11.0 to 16.1 % among varieties and ‘Borovača’, ‘Aleksandrija’, ‘Krstovača’, ‘Dapsićanka’, ‘Bosnika’, ‘Rebrača’ and ‘Babovača’ had the highest SSC values imply that they can be commercially used in production of spirits, wine, concentrate and jam and also for drying. Based on 3-year average data for 25 properties, UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) dendrogram showed a high degree of variability among the studied varieties dividing them into 5 groups and 3 independent accessions.

Zusammenfassung

Einheimische Apfelsorten haben immer noch Bedeutung in Montenegro, sie sind wertvolle Ressourcen für die menschliche Ernährung und prägend für das ländliche Landschaftsbild. Das Ziel dieser Untersuchung in den Jahren 2008 bis 2010 war es, die morphologische Diversität von 30 autochthonen Apfelsorten in Montenegro zu untersuchen und damit einen Beitrag zur Bewahrung dieser Sorten zu leisten. Zwischen den Sorten wurde eine große Schwankung in der Blüte- und in der Reifezeit gefunden. Dadurch wurde eine Klassifizierung in „sehr früh“, „früh“, „mittel“ und „spät“ bei der Blütezeit und in „früh“, „mittel“, „spät“ und „sehr spät“ bei der Reifezeit vorgenommen. Die Einzelfruchtgewichte variierten sehr stark von 40,76 g bis zu 206,74 g, wobei ‚Krupnaja‘, ‚Krstovača‘ und ‚Babovača‘ die größten Früchte hatten (191,83 g–206,74 g). Die lösliche Trockensubstanz (SSC) schwankte zwischen den Sorten von 11,0 % bis 16,1 %. ‚Borovača‘, ‚Aleksandrija‘, ‚Krstovača‘, ‚Dapsićanka‘, ‚Bosnika‘, ‚Rebrača‘ und ‚Babovača‘ hatten den höchsten Gehalt an löslicher Trockensubstanz, was sie für eine kommerzielle Verwendung in der Herstellung von Schnaps, Wein, Konzentrat, Konfitüre und des Weiteren für Trockenfrüchte geeignet macht. Mit den in den drei Jahren gesammelten Mittelwerten von 25 Eigenschaften wurde ein UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) Dendrogramm erstellt, das zwischen den untersuchten Sorten eine hohe Variabilität zeigt und die Sorten in 5 Gruppen und 3 unabhängige Einheiten einteilen lässt.

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Acknowledgments

The data presented were collected during realization of regional projects ‘Survey of autochthonous apple populations in the area South-East Europe’ (2007–2008) and ‘Characterization of apple local varies (Malus domestica Borkh) from South-East European Region’ (2009–2010) financed by Swedish Sida.

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Correspondence to Sezai Ercisli.

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Božović, D., Lazović, B., Ercisli, S. et al. Morphological Characterization of Autochthonous Apple Genetic Resources in Montenegro. Erwerbs-Obstbau 58, 93–102 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10341-015-0260-8

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Keywords

  • Apple
  • Autochthonous varieties
  • Variability and characteristics
  • Montenegro

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apfel
  • Autochthone Sorten
  • Variabilität und Eigenschaften
  • Montenegro