Der Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): Wildobst aus Afrika für Deutschland und Europa?!

The Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): Wild African Fruit for Germany and Europe?!

Zusammenfassung

Exotische Früchte aus fernen Ländern erlangen in Deutschland und Europa immer mehr an Bedeutung. Gerade in den Tropen und Subtropen ist die Vielfalt an Fruchtarten enorm groß. Das getrocknete Fruchtfleisch des Baobabs (Adansonia digitata L.) ist seit 2008 als neuartige Lebensmittelzutat für die Europäische Union zugelassen und mehr und mehr Produkte kommen auf den Markt.

In seiner Heimat Afrika ist der Baobab ein imposanter Baum der Savannen. Aufgrund seines ausgedehnten Wurzelsystems und der hohen Wasserspeicherkapazität im Stamm übersteht er Trockenzeiten und Dürreperioden. In Afrika ist der Baum Nahrungsgrundlage und Bestandteil für Kleidung und Medizin, er bietet den Menschen Schutz und ist Kultstätte, liefert Viehfutter und Material für Gebrauchsgegenstände aller Art.

Im Rahmen einer Studie konnten für Europa insgesamt schon mehr als 300 Produkte des Baobabs bzw. mit Baobab-Zutaten identifiziert werden. In Deutschland sind als Lebensmittel sowohl naturbelassenes Baobab-Fruchtpulver als auch Verarbeitungsprodukte wie Getränke, Brotaufstriche, Müsliriegel, Konfekte und Schokoladen mit Baobab-Fruchtfleisch erhältlich. Darüber hinaus ist eine Vielzahl von pharmazeutischen und kosmetischen Produkten mit Extrakten des Baobabs in unseren Geschäften verfügbar. Das Produktspektrum reicht von After Shave und Parfum über Shampoo und Duschgel bis hin zu Beinlotion und Fußspray.

Baobab-Setzlinge und -Samen werden in Deutschland für die Anzucht und Kultivierung als Zimmerpflanze verkauft. Der Senegal produziert kommerziell Baobab-Bonsais für den europäischen Markt.

In Afrika werden die Früchte fast ausschließlich von wildwachsenden Bäumen geerntet. Jedoch könnte der erwerbsmäßige Anbau des Baobabs eine wichtige Einkommensquelle für die ländliche Bevölkerung darstellen. Dafür sind die weitere Erforschung und Domestizierung dieser Wildobstart sowie der ausdrückliche Schutz der natürlichen Bestände als wichtige genetische Ressource zwingend notwendig.

Abstract

In Germany and Europe exotic fruits from distant places are becoming more and more important. In the tropics and subtropics an enormous variety of edible fruits exists. In 2008 the dry fruit pulp of the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) was approved as novel food for the EU and thus entered the formal food market. Hence, an increasing number of products became available in Europe.

The baobab is an impressive tree in the savannas of Africa. Due to its dense and wide spreading root system and its enormous water storing capacity in the stem, the tree can grow under very dry environmental conditions. In many regions of Africa it is a multipurpose indigenous fruit tree species which offers shelter and provides food, fodder and medicine as well as raw material for many purposes.

However, even in Europe a wide range of products is now available as shown in the present study, which identified more than 300 baobab products or products with baobab as an ingredient. In Germany, not only the natural baobab pulp but also ready-made foodstuffs such as soft drinks, sandwich spreads, cereal bars, sweets and chocolates are available. Furthermore, a diverse range of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products with extracts from the baobab is available in the market. The products range from after shave and perfume to shampoo and shower gel to leg lotion and foot spray.

In Germany baobab saplings and seeds are offered for planting and cultivation as an indoor pot plant. Commercially marketed baobab bonsai seedlings for the European market are produced in Senegal.

In Africa the baobab fruits are mainly harvested from wild stands. However, the commercial production of baobab fruits in orchards could be an important future opportunity for income generation to many local households. More research on baobab, including the domestication of this wild fruit tree species, and the conservation of its natural stands as important genetic resource are prerequisites for sustainably increased fruit production.

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Danksagung

Dank gilt der Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes und der Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung für die langjährige finanzielle und ideelle Unterstützung des Erstautors und die dadurch ermöglichten vielfältigen Afrikaforschungsreisen.

Die Autoren danken dem Förderverein der Hochschule Rhein-Waal für die finanzielle Unterstützung des studentischen Projekts im Studiengang Bio Science and Health (B. Sc.) der Fakultät Life Sciences an der Hochschule Rhein-Waal mit dem Titel „Produkte des Baobabs –Innovative Lebensmittel für Kleve, Deutschland und Europa?!“

Für die Bereitstellung von Informationsmaterialien danken wir der Baobab Social Business gGmbH, CONTIGO Göttingen und Martina Gebhardt Naturkosmetik.

Vielen Dank auch an Axel Hinnemann für die Bereitstellung des Fotos der Abb. 18.

Allen Baobab-Sympathisanten sei herzlich gedankt für das Zusammentragen von vielen interessanten Informationen, die leider nicht alle in diesen Artikel einfließen konnten.

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Gebauer, J., Assem, A., Busch, E. et al. Der Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.): Wildobst aus Afrika für Deutschland und Europa?!. Erwerbs-Obstbau 56, 9–24 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10341-013-0197-8

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Adansonia digitata
  • Affenbrotbaum
  • Baobab
  • Brotaufstrich
  • Erfrischungsgetränk
  • Exotisches Obst
  • Genetische Ressource
  • Körperpflege
  • Konfekt
  • Kosmetik
  • Neuartiges Lebensmittel
  • Müsliriegel
  • Schokolade
  • Wildobstgehölz

Keywords

  • Adansonia digitata
  • Baobab
  • Body Care
  • Cereal Bar
  • Chocolate
  • Cosmetics
  • Exotic Fruits
  • Genetic Resources
  • Monkey Bread Tree
  • Novel Food
  • Sandwich Spread
  • Soft Drinks
  • Sweets
  • Wild Fruit Tree