Vertebrate pests cause significant economic loss in several agricultural crops worldwide; therefore, their populations are often controlled through culling. Correctly identifying the main species responsible for the damage is essential to avoid persecuting the wrong targets, yet it is challenging. During 2016 and 2017, we tested the usefulness of camera-trapping (CT) in Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal to identify vertebrate pests. Vineyard owners in this region cull the Azores woodpigeon (Columba palumbus azorica), the common pigeon (Columba livia), the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), the Azores blackbird (Turdus merula azorensis), and the Madeira wall lizard (Teira dugesii) to reduce damage to grapes. Using CT photos and videos, we identified nine species damaging the grape, but four of those were only observed occasionally (< 10 consumption events over 2 years). The Madeira lizard (371.09 and 232.47 consumption events100-CT-days in 2016 and 2017, respectively), the house sparrow (284.01 and 21.73 consumption events100-CT-days in 2016 and 2017, respectively), and the Azores blackbird (17.35 and 8.23 consumption events100-CT-days in 2016 and 2017, respectively) had the most frequent consumption events. All three species were most active in the morning (8:00–9:00) and in the afternoon (16:00–17:00 for the Madeira lizard and the house sparrow, and 18:00–19:00 for the Azores blackbird). We demonstrated the advantage of using CT in cultivated habitats to provide valuable information about the identity, behaviour, daily-activity patterns, and relative consumption rates of vineyard pests. We also provided evidence that the endemic Azores woodpigeon and the common pigeon should not be targeted by the farmers in Terceira.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anderson A, Lindell CA, Moxcey KM et al (2013) Bird damage to select fruit crops: the cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states. Crop Prot 52:103–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.05.019
Atlas climático de los archipiélagos de Canarias, Madeira y Azores (2012) Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente
Barcelos L, Rodrigues P, Bried J et al (2015) Birds from the Azores: an updated list with some comments on species distribution. Biodivers Data J 3:e6604. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.3.e6604
Bomford M, Sinclair R (2002) Australian research on bird pests: impact, management and future directions. Emu 102:29–45. https://doi.org/10.1071/MU01028
Borges PAV, Costa A, Cunha R et al (eds) (2010) A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores. Princípia, Cascais
Bowler MT, Tobler MW, Endress BA et al (2017) Estimating mammalian species richness and occupancy in tropical forest canopies with arboreal camera traps. Remote Sens Ecol Conserv 3:146–157
Bridges AS, Noss AJ (2011) Behavior and activity patterns. In: O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (eds) Camera traps in animal ecology: methods and analyses. Springer, Tokyo, pp 57–69
Caravaggi A, Banks PB, Burton AC et al (2017) A review of camera trapping for conservation behaviour research. Remote Sens Ecol Conserv 3:109–122. https://doi.org/10.1002/rse2.48
Coates RW, Delwiche MJ, Gorenzel WP, Salmon TP (2010) Evaluation of damage by vertebrate pests in California vineyards and control of wild turkeys by bioacoustics. Hum Wildl Interact 4:130–144
Gebhardt K, Anderson AM, Kirkpatrick KN, Shwiff SA (2011) A review and synthesis of bird and rodent damage estimates to select California crops. Crop Prot 30:1109–1116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2011.05.015
Glen AS, Cockburn S, Nichols M et al (2013) Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals. PLoS ONE 8:e67940. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067940
Gong W, Sinden J, Braysher ML et al (2009) The economic impacts of vertebrate pests in Australia. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra
Honda T, Miyagawa Y, Suzuki Y, Yamasaki S (2010) Possibility of agronomical techniques for reducing crop damage by sika deer. Mamm Study 35:119–124. https://doi.org/10.3106/041.035.0202
Krauss SL, Roberts DG, Phillips RD, Edwards C (2018) Effectiveness of camera traps for quantifying daytime and nighttime visitation by vertebrate pollinators. Ecol Evol 8:9304–9314. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4438
Kross SM, Tylianakis JM, Nelson XJ (2012) Effects of introducing threatened falcons into vineyards on abundance of passeriformes and bird damage to grapes. Conserv Biol 26:142–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01756.x
Madruga J, Azevedo EB, Sampaio JF et al (2015) Analysis and definition of potential new areas for viticulture in the Azores (Portugal). SOIL 1:515–526. https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-1-515-2015
Medeiros CA (1994) Contribuição para o estudo da vinha e do vinho dos Açores. Finisterra 29:199–229. https://doi.org/10.18055/Finis1832
Meek PD, Ballard G, Claridge A et al (2014) Recommended guiding principles for reporting on camera trapping research. Biodivers Conserv 23:2321–2343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0712-8
O’Brien TG (2011) Abundance, density and relative abundance: a conceptual framework. In: O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (eds) Camera traps in animal ecology: methods and analyses. Springer, New York, pp 71–96
O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF, Wibisono HT (2003) Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Anim Conserv 6:131–139. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943003003172
O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (eds) (2011) Camera traps in animal ecology: methods and analyses. Springer, New York
R Core Team (2019) A language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.3.3. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org
Regional Legislative Decree No 11/2011/A (2011) About the creation and re-classification of Protected Areas of the Azores. Diário da República, Região Autónoma dos Açores
Rovero F, Zimmermann F, Berzi D, Meek P (2013) Which camera trap type and how many do I need? A review of camera features and study designs for a range of wildlife research applications. Hystrix 24:148–156. https://doi.org/10.4404/hystrix-24.2-8789
Rowcliffe JM, Field J, Turvey ST, Carbone C (2008) Estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition. J Appl Ecol 45:1228–1236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01473.x
Silveira L, Jácomo ATA, Diniz-Filho JAF (2003) Camera trap, line transect census and track surveys: a comparative evaluation. Biol Conserv 114:351–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00063-6
Sollmann R, Mohamed A, Samejima H, Wilting A (2013) Risky business or simple solution–Relative abundance indices from camera-trapping. Biol Conserv 159:405–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.12.025
Somers CM, Morris RD (2002) Birds and wine grapes: foraging activity causes small-scale damage patterns in single vineyards. J Appl Ecol 39:511–523. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00725.x
Stevenson AB, Virgo BB (1971) Damage by robins and starlings to grapes in Ontario. Can J Plant Sci 51:201–210
Tracey JP, Saunders GR (2010) A technique to estimate bird damage in wine grapes. Crop Prot 29:435–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2009.10.008
Tracey JB, Bornford M, Hart Q et al (2007) Managing bird damage to fruit and other horticultural crops. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra
Volpe R, Green R, Heien D, Howitt R (2010) Estimating the supply elasticity of California wine grapes using regional systems of equations*. J Wine Econ 5:219–235. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1931436100000924
Wearn OR, Glover-Kapfer P (2019) Snap happy: camera traps are an effective sampling tool when compared with alternative methods. R Soc Open Sci 6:181748. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181748
Witmer G (2007) The ecology of vertebrate pests and integrated pest management (IPM). In: Kogan M, Jepson P (eds) Perspectives in ecological theory and integrated pest management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 393–410
Zak AA, Riley EP (2017) Comparing the use of camera traps and farmer reports to study crop feeding behavior of moor macaques (Macaca maura). Int J Primatol 38:224–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-016-9945-6
Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C et al (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecol Econ 64:253–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.02.024
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Communicated by M. Traugott.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Lamelas-López, L., Marco, F. Using camera-trapping to assess grape consumption by vertebrate pests in a World Heritage vineyard region. J Pest Sci 94, 585–590 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-020-01267-x
- Bird pests
- Daily-activity pattern
- Fruit damage
- Reptile pests
- Rodent pests