Pyflubumide is a novel selective carboxanilide acaricide that inhibits mitochondrial complex II of spider mite species such as Tetranychus urticae. We explored the baseline toxicity and potential cross-resistance risk of pyflubumide in a reference panel of T. urticae strains resistant to various acaricides with different modes of action. A cyenopyrafen-resistant strain (JPR) was identified as the only strain with low-to-moderate level of cross-resistance to pyflubumide (LC50 = 49.07 mg/L). In a resistance risk assessment approach, JPR was subsequently selected which led to two highly resistant strains JPR-R1 (RR = 466.7) and JPR-R2 (RR = 614.8). Interestingly, compared to adult females, resistance was much less pronounced in adult males and eggs of the two JPR-R strains. In order to elucidate resistance mechanisms, we first sequenced the complex II subunits in susceptible and resistant strains, but target-site insensitivity could not be detected. In contrast, synergism/antagonism experiments strongly suggested that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in pyflubumide resistance. We therefore conducted genome-wide gene expression experiments to investigate constitutive and induced expression patterns and documented the overexpression of five cytochrome P450 and four carboxyl/choline esterase genes in the JPR-R strains after pyflubumide exposure. Together, we provide a first resistance risk assessment of a novel complex II inhibitor and provide first evidence for metabolic resistance mediated by cytochrome P450s in T. urticae.
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This work was partially funded by the University of Amsterdam (IBED), and it was supported by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) [Grant G009312N and Grant G053815N] and the Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program [Grant 772026-POLYADAPT and 773902–SUPERPEST]. N.W. was supported by a Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) postdoctoral fellowship (12T9818N).
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Communicated by E. Roditakis.
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Fotoukkiaii, S.M., Mermans, C., Wybouw, N. et al. Resistance risk assessment of the novel complex II inhibitor pyflubumide in the polyphagous pest Tetranychus urticae. J Pest Sci 93, 1085–1096 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-020-01213-x
- Pesticide selection
- Complex II
- Cytochrome P450