Journal of Pest Science

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 107–115 | Cite as

The Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus: a global invader and a successful case of classical biological control

  • Dimitrios N. AvtzisEmail author
  • George Melika
  • Dinka Matošević
  • David R. Coyle


Native to China, the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (ACGW), was first found outside its native range in Japan and the Korean peninsula in the mid-twentieth century. After appearing in North America in 1974, it was found in Europe a few decades later. Since then, the gall wasp has spread throughout the distribution of chestnut in Europe. The ACGW’s discovery in North America and Europe elicited numerous studies to understand its invasive potential in these areas and how to control its spread and impact on chestnut production. Although endemic parasitoids responded positively to D. kuriphilus with low parasitism rates, the most effective management tactic has been classical biological control via the introduction of the parasitoid Torymus sinensis from its native range in China. This review summarizes the history of introduction, spread, and current distribution of D. kuriphilus, and highlights one of the most successful cases of classical biological control against a forest pest.


Dryocosmus kuriphilus Asian chestnut gall wasp Torymus sinensis Biological control Invasive pest 



The authors would like to thank the Guest Editors of the Special Issue “Invasive insect pests of forest and urban trees: pathways, early detection and management” for the invitation to contribute this review to this Special Issue.


This review was not supported by any grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


  1. Abe Y, Melika G, Stone GN (2007) The diversity and phylogeography of cynipid gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the oriental and eastern palaearctic regions, and their associated communities. Orient Insects 41:169–212Google Scholar
  2. Ács Z, Melika G, Pénzes Z, Pujade-Villar J, Stone GN (2007) The phylogenetic relationships between Dryocosmus chilaspis and allied genera of oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae: Cynipini). Syst Entomol 32:70–80Google Scholar
  3. Aebi A, Schönrogge K, Melika G, Alma A, Bosio G, Quacchia A, Picciau L, Abe Y, Moriya S, Yara K, Seljak G, Stone GN (2006) Parasitoid recruitment to the globally invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus. In: Ozaki K, Yukawa J, Ohgushi T, Price PW (eds) Ecology and evolution of galling arthropods and their associates. Springer, Tokyo, pp 103–121Google Scholar
  4. Aebi A, Schönrogge K, Melika G, Quacchia A, Alma A, Stone GN (2007) Native and introduced parasitoids attacking the invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus. Bull OEPP 37:166–171Google Scholar
  5. Aebi A, Schönenberger N, Bigler F (2013) Towards an environmental risk assessment of Torymus sinensis against the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Switzerland. In: Report for the FOENGoogle Scholar
  6. Askew RR, Melika G, Pujade-Villar J, Schönrogge K, Stone GN (2013) Catalogue of parasitoids and inquilines in cynipid oak galls in the West Palaearctic. Zootaxa 3643:1–133Google Scholar
  7. Aukema JE, Leung B, Kovacs K, Chivers C, Britton KO, Englin J, Frankel SJ, Haight RG, Holmes TP, Liebhold M, McCullough DG, Von Holle B (2011) Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States. PLoS ONE 6(9):e24587Google Scholar
  8. Avtzis D, Matošević D (2013) Taking Europe by storm: a first insight in the introduction and expansion of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in central Europe by mtDNa. Šumarski List 7–8:387–394Google Scholar
  9. Avtzis DN, Coyle DR, Christopoulos V, Roques A (2017) Biological invasions, national borders and the current state of non-native insect species in Greece and the neighboring Balkan countries. Bull Insect 70:161–169Google Scholar
  10. Bailey R, Schönrogge K, Cook JM, Melika G, Csóka G, Thuroczy C, Stone GN (2009) Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities. PLoS Biol 7(8):e1000179Google Scholar
  11. Battisti A, Bevegnu I, Colombari F, Haack RA (2014) Invasion by the chestnut gall wasp in Italy causes significant yield loss in Castanea sativa nut production. Agric For Entomol 16:75–79Google Scholar
  12. Bernardo U, Iodice L, Sasso R, Tutore VA, Cascone P, Guerrieri E (2013) Biology and monitoring of Dryocosmus kuriphilus on Castanea sativa in Southern Italy. Agric For Entomol 15:65–76Google Scholar
  13. Borowiec N, Thaon M, Brancaccio L, Warot S, Vercken E, Fauvergue X, Ris N, Malausa JC (2014) Classical biological control against the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) in France. Plant Prot Q 29:7–10Google Scholar
  14. Borowiec N, Thaon M, Brancaccio L, Cailleret B, Ris N, Vercken E (2018) Early population dynamics in classical biological control: establishment of the exotic parasitoid Torymus sinensis and control of its target pest, the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus, in France. Entomol Exp Appl 166:367–379. Google Scholar
  15. Bosio G, Gerbaudo C, Piazza E (2010) Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasmatsu: an outline seven years after the first report in Piedmont (Italy). Acta Hortic 866:341–348Google Scholar
  16. Bosio G, Armando M, Moriya S (2013) Verso il controllo biologico del cinipide del castagno. L’Informatore Agrario 69(14):60–64Google Scholar
  17. Brockerhoff EG, Liebhold AM (2017) Ecology of forest insect invasions. Biol Invasions 19:3141–3159Google Scholar
  18. Brussino G, Bosio G, Baudino M, Giordano R, Ramello F, Melika G (2002) Nuovo cinipide galligeno in Piemonte. Pericoloso insetto esotico per il castagno europeo. L’Informatore Agrario 37:59–61Google Scholar
  19. Cerasa G, Lo Verde G, Caleca V, Massa B, Nicholls JA, Melika G (2018) Description of Dryocosmus destefanii new species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from Quercus suber L. in Italy. Zootaxa 4370:535–548Google Scholar
  20. Çetġn G, Orman E, Polat Z (2014) First record of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Turkey. Bitki Koruma Bülteni 54:303–309Google Scholar
  21. Cho DY, Lee SO (1963) Ecological studies on the chestnut gallwasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, and observations on the damages of the chestnut trees by its insect. Korean J Plant Prot 2:47–54Google Scholar
  22. Colombari F, Battisti A (2016a) Spread of the introduced biocontrol agent Torymus sinensis in north Eastern Italy: dispersal through active flight or assisted by the wind? Biocontrol 61:127–139Google Scholar
  23. Colombari F, Battisti A (2016b) Native and introduced parasitoids in the biocontrol of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Veneto (Italy). Bull OEPP 46:275–285Google Scholar
  24. Conedera M, Gehring E (2015) Danni da cinipide e miele di castagno. L’ape Rivista Svizzera di Apicoltura 98:6–8Google Scholar
  25. Cooper WR, Rieske LK (2007) Community associates of an exotic gallmaker, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), in Eastern North America. Ann Entomol Soc Am 100:236–244Google Scholar
  26. Cooper WR, Rieske LK (2011) A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host. Biocontrol 56:725–734Google Scholar
  27. Crowl TA, Crist TO, Parmenter RR, Belovsky G, Lugo AE (2008) The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change. Front Ecol Environ 6:238–246Google Scholar
  28. Csóka G, Stone GN, Melika G (2004) Biology, ecology and evolution of gall-inducing Cynipidae. In: Raman A, Schaefer CW, Withers TM (eds) Biology, ecology and evolution of gall-inducing arthropods. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, pp 569–636Google Scholar
  29. Csóka G, Wittmann F, Melika G (2009) A szelidgesztenye gubacsdarázs (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu 1951) megjelenése Magyarországon. Növényvédelem 45:359–361Google Scholar
  30. Csóka G, Stone GN, Melika G (2017) Non-native gall-inducing insects on forest trees: a global review. Biol Invasions 19:3161–3181Google Scholar
  31. Delalić Z (2016) First record of quarantine pest, oriental chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor) 44:58–65Google Scholar
  32. Dini F, Sartor C, Botta R (2012) Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid “Bouche de Betizac” infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu. Plant Physiol Biochem 60:67–73Google Scholar
  33. EFSA (2010) Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory on request from the European Commission. EFSA J 8:1619Google Scholar
  34. EPPO (2005) Data sheets on quarantine pests: Dryocosmus kuriphilus. EPPO Bull 35:422–424Google Scholar
  35. Ferracini C, Ferrari E, Saladini MA, Pontini M, Corradetti M, Alma A (2015a) Non-target risk assessment for the parasitoid Torymus sinensis. Biocontrol 60:583–594Google Scholar
  36. Ferracini C, Gonella E, Ferrari E, Saladini MA, Picciau L, Tota F, Pontini M, Alma A (2015b) Novel insight in the life cycle of Torymus sinensis, biocontrol agent of the chestnut gall wasp. Biocontrol 60:169–177Google Scholar
  37. Ferracini C, Ferrari E, Pontini M, Nova LKH, Saladini MA, Alma A (2017) Post-release evaluation of non-target effects of Torymus sinensis, the biological control agent of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy. Biocontrol 62:445–456Google Scholar
  38. Ferracini C, Ferrari E, Pontini M, Saladini M, Alma A (2018) Effectiveness of Torymus sinensis: a successful long-term control of the Asian chestnut gall wasp in Italy. J Pest Sci. Google Scholar
  39. Forster B, Castellazzi T, Colombi L, Fuerst E, Marazzi C, Meier F, Tettamanti G, Moretti G (2009) Die Edelkastaniengallwespe Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu) (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) tritt erstmals in der Südschweiz auf. Mit Schweiz Entomol Ges 82:271–279Google Scholar
  40. Francati S, Alma A, Ferracini C, Pollini A, Dindo ML (2015) Indigenous parasitoids associated with Dryocosmus kuriphilus in a chestnut production area of Emilia Romagna (Italy). Bull Insectol 68:127–134Google Scholar
  41. Gehring E, Bellosi B, Quacchia A, Conedera M (2018) Assessing the impact of Dryocosmus kuriphilus on the chestnut tree: branch architecture matters. J Pest Sci 91:189–202Google Scholar
  42. Gibbs M, Schönrogge K, Alma A, Melika G, Quacchia A, Stone GN, Aebi A (2011) Torymus sinensis: a viable management option for the biological control of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Europe? Biocontrol 56:527–538Google Scholar
  43. Gilioli G, Pasquali S, Tramontini S, Riolo F (2013) Modelling local and long-distance dispersal of invasive chestnut gall wasp in Europe. Ecol Model 263:281–290Google Scholar
  44. Gninenko YI, Lyanguzov ME (2017) East chestnut gall wasps Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae)—New invader in the forests of the North Caucasus. Rus J Biol Inv 8:206–211Google Scholar
  45. Graziosi I, Rieske LK (2013) Response of Torymus sinensis, a parasitoid of the gallforming Dryocosmus kuriphilus, to olfactory and visual cues. Biol Control 67:137–142Google Scholar
  46. Graziosi I, Rieske LK (2014) Potential fecundity of a highly invasive gall maker Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Environ Entomol 43:1053–1058Google Scholar
  47. Graziosi I, Santi F (2008) Chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus): spreading in Italy and new records in Bologna province. Bull Insectol 61:343–348Google Scholar
  48. Gyoutoku Y, Uemura M (1985) Ecology and biological control of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). 1. Damage and parasitization in Kumamoto Prefecture. Proc Assoc Plant Prot Kyushu 31:213–215Google Scholar
  49. Haack RA (2015) Established populations of the Asian chestnut gall wasp discovered in Michigan. Newsl Mich Entomol Soc 60:25Google Scholar
  50. Hajek AE (2008) Natural enemies: an introduction to biological control, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Hajek AE, Hurley BP, Kenis M, Garnas JR, Bush SJ, Wingfield MJ, van Lenteren JC, Cock MJW (2016) Exotic biological control agents: a solution or contribution to arthropod invasions? Biol Invasions 18:953–969Google Scholar
  52. Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, deWaard JR (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:313–321Google Scholar
  53. Herms DA, McCullough DG (2014) Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management. Annu Rev Entomol 59:13–30Google Scholar
  54. Holmes TP, Aukema JE, Von Holle B, Liebhold A, Sills E (2009) Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future. Ann NY Acad Sci 1162:18–38Google Scholar
  55. Huber JT, Read J (2012) First record of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), in Canada. J Entomol Soc Ont 143:125–128Google Scholar
  56. Hulme PE, Pysek P, Nentwig W, Vila M (2009) Will threat of biological invasions unite the European Union? Science 324:40–41Google Scholar
  57. Kajiura M, Machida Y (1961) The breeding of resistant varieties to some insects and diseases in fruit trees. Jpn J Breed 11:137–140Google Scholar
  58. Kamijo K (1981) Pteromalid wasps (Hymenoptera) reared from cynipid galls on oak and chestnut in Japan, with descriptions of four new species. Kontyû 49:272–282Google Scholar
  59. Kamijo K (1982) Two new species of Torymus (Hymenoptera, Torymidae) reared from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) in China and Korea. Kontyû 50:505–510Google Scholar
  60. Kato K, Hijii N (1997) Effects of gall formation by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hym, Cynipidae) on the growth of chestnut trees. J Appl Entomol 121:9–15Google Scholar
  61. Kenis M, Auger-Rozenberg M-A, Roques A, Timms L, Péré C, Cock MJW, Settele J, Augustin S, Lopez-Vaamonde C (2009) Ecological effects of invasive alien insects. Biol Invasions 11:21–45Google Scholar
  62. Kos K, Kriston É, Melika G (2015) Invasive chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), its native parasitoid community and association with oak gall wasps in Slovenia. Eur J Entomol 112:698–704Google Scholar
  63. Liebhold AM, Brockerhoff EG, Kalisz S, Nuñez MA, Wardle DA, Wingfield MJ (2017) Biological invasions in forest ecosystems. Biol Invasions 19:3437–3458Google Scholar
  64. Lieutier F, Payne TD (2016) Responses of mediterranean forest phytophagous insects to climate change. In: Paine T, Lieutier F (eds) Insects and diseases of mediterranean forest systems. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  65. Lione G, Giordano L, Ferracini C, Alma A, Gonthier P (2016) Testing ecological interactions between Gnomoniopsis castanea and Dryocosmus kuriphilus. Acta Oecol 77:10–17Google Scholar
  66. Lizotte E (2015) Asian chestnut gall wasp confirmed in Michigan. Michigan State University Extension News. Accessed 17 Aug 2018
  67. Matošević D, Melika G (2013) Recruitment of native parasitoids to a new invasive host: first results of Dryocosmus kuriphilus parasitoid assemblage in Croatia. Bull Insectol 66:231–238Google Scholar
  68. Matošević D, Pajač I (2013) Alien phytophagous insect and mite species on woody plants in Croatia. Šumarski List 3–4:191–205Google Scholar
  69. Matošević D, Pernek M, Hrašovec B (2010) First record of oriental chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) in Croatia. Šumarski List 134:497–502Google Scholar
  70. Matošević D, Lacković N, Melika G, Kos K, Franić I, Kriston É, Bozsó M, Seljak G, Rot M (2015) Biological control of invasive Dryocosmus kuriphilus with introduced parasitoid Torymus sinensis in Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary. Period Biol 117:471–477Google Scholar
  71. Matošević D, Lacković N, Kos K, Kriston É, Melika G, Rot M, Pernek M (2017a) Success of classical biocontrol agent Torymus Sinensis within its expanding range in Europe. J Appl Entomol 141:758–767Google Scholar
  72. Matošević D, Mujezinović O, Dautbasić M (2017b) First record of biocontrol agent Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera; Torymidae) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. SEEFOR 8:147–149Google Scholar
  73. Meurisse N, Rassati D, Hurley BP, Brockerhoff EG, Haack R (2018) Common pathways by which non-native forest insects move internationally and domestically. J Pest Sci. Google Scholar
  74. Meyer JB, Gallien L, Prospero S (2015) Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp? FEMS Microbiol Ecol 91(11):fiv122Google Scholar
  75. Michaelakis A, Papachristos D, Chytas DA, Antonopoulou PD, Milonas PG, Avtzis DN (2016) First record of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Greece. Bull OEPP 46:290–294Google Scholar
  76. Moriya S, Inoue K, Shiga M, Mabuchi M (1992) Interspecific relationship between an introduced parasitoid, Torymus sinensis Kamijo, as a biological control agent of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, and an endemic parasitoid, T. beneficus Yasumatsu and Kamijo. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 27:479–483Google Scholar
  77. Moriya S, Shiga M, Adachi I (2003) Classical biological control of the chestnut gall wasp in Japan. In: Van Driesche RG (eds) Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on biological control of arthropods. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Washington, pp 407–415Google Scholar
  78. Murakami Y, Ao HB, Chiang C-H (1980) Natural enemies in the chestnut gall wasp in Hopei Province, China (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Appl Entomol Zool 15:184–186Google Scholar
  79. Nicholls JA, Challis RJ, Mutun S, Stone GN (2012) Mitochondrial barcodes are diagnostic of shared refugia but not species in hybridising oak gallwasps. Mol Ecol 21(16):4051–4062Google Scholar
  80. Nugnes F, Gualtieri L, Bonsignore CP, Parillo R, Annarumma R, Griffo R, Bernardo U (2018) Resistance of a local ecotype of Castanea sativa to Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Southern Italy. Forests 9(2):94. Google Scholar
  81. Oho N, Shimura I (1970) Research process on the chestnut gall wasp and some recent problems about its damage. Shokubutsu Boeki (Plant Protection) 24:421–427Google Scholar
  82. Orlova-Bienkowskaja MJ (2014) Ashes in Europe are in danger: the invasive range of Agrilus planipennis in European Russia is expanding. Biol Invasions 16:1345–1349Google Scholar
  83. Otake A (1987) Comparison of some morphological characters among two strains of Torymus beneficus Yasumatsu et Kamijo and T. sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Appl Entomol Zool 22:600–609Google Scholar
  84. Otake A, Shiga M, Moriya S (1982) A study on parasitism of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) by parasitoids indigenous to Japan. Bull Fruit Tree Res Stn A9:177–192Google Scholar
  85. Paini DR, Sheppard AW, Cook DC, De Barro PJ, Worner SP, Thomas MB (2016) Global threat to agriculture from invasive species. Proc Natl Acad Sci (PNAS) 113:7575–7579Google Scholar
  86. Paparella F, Ferracini C, Portaluri A, Manzo A, Alma A (2015) Biological control of the chestnut gall wasp with T. sinensis: a mathematical model. arXiv:1512.06255:1–43
  87. Pástor M, Juhásová G, Juhás D, Bakay L, Kollár J, Benčať T (2017) Occurrence of oriental chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) in Slovakia. Plant Prot Sci 53:243–246Google Scholar
  88. Payne JA (1978) Oriental chestnut gall wasp: new nut pest in North America. In Proceedings, American chestnut symposium, 4–5 January 1978. West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, pp 86–88Google Scholar
  89. Payne JA, Johnson WT (1979) Plant pests. In: Jaynes RA (ed) Nut tree culture in North America. Northern Nut Growers Association, Hamden, pp 314–395Google Scholar
  90. Payne JA, Menke AS, Schroeder PM (1975) Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), an oriental chestnut gall wasp in North America. Coop Econ Insect Rep 25:903–905Google Scholar
  91. Payne JA, Jaynes RA, Kays SJ (1983) Chinese chestnut production in the United States: practice, problems and possible solutions. Econ Bot 37:187–200Google Scholar
  92. Pénzes Z, Tang C-T, Stone GN, Nicholls JA, Schwéger S, Bozsó M, Melika G (2018) Current status of the oak gallwasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) fauna of the Eastern Palaearctic and the oriental regions. Zootaxa 4433:245–289. Google Scholar
  93. Piao C, Moriya S (1999) Oviposition of Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) under natural conditions. Entomol Sci 2:329–334Google Scholar
  94. Pimentel D, McNair S, Janecka J, Wightman J, Simmonds C, O’Connell C, Wong E, Russel L, Zern J, Aquino T, Tsomondo T (2001) Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 84:1–20Google Scholar
  95. Powell W (2014) The American chestnut’s genetic rebirth. Sci Am 310:68–73Google Scholar
  96. Prospero S, Forster B (2011) Chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) infestations: new opportunities for the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica? New Dis Rep 23:35Google Scholar
  97. Pujade-Villar J, Torrell A, Rojo M (2013) Nota entomológica. Primeres troballes a la península Ibèrica de Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hym., Cynipidae), una espècie de cinípid d’origen Asiàtic altament perillosa per al castanyer (Fagaceae). Orsis 27:295–301 (in Spanish) Google Scholar
  98. Quacchia A, Moriya S, Bosio G, Scapin I, Alma A (2008) Rearing, release and settlement prospect in Italy of Torymus sinensis, the biological control agent of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus. Biol Control 53:829–839Google Scholar
  99. Quacchia A, Ferracini C, Nicholls JA, Saladini MA, Tota F, Melika G, Alma A (2012) Chalcid parasitoid community associated with the invading pest Dryocosmus kuriphilus in north-western Italy. Insect Conserv Divers 6:114–123Google Scholar
  100. Quacchia A, Moriya S, Askew R, Schönrogge K (2014) Torymus sinensis: biology, host range and hybridization. Acta Hortic 1043:105–111Google Scholar
  101. Radócz L, Szilágyi A, Nagy M, Kovács G, Melika G (2016) Asian sweet chestnut gallwasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae): first record for Romania. North West J Zool 12:201–204Google Scholar
  102. Rieske LK (2007) Success of an exotic gallmaker, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, on chestnut in the USA: a historical account. OEPP/EPPO Bull 37:172–174Google Scholar
  103. Rieske LK (2014) Accumulation of natural enemies by the Asian chestnut gall wasp in North America. Acta Hort 1019:205–209Google Scholar
  104. Roques A (2010) Taxonomy, time and geographic patterns. Chapter 2. In: Roques A et al. (eds) Alien terrestrial arthropods of Europe. BioRisk, vol 4, pp 11–26Google Scholar
  105. Roques A, Auger-Rozenberg M-A, Blackburn TM, Garnas J, Pysek P, Rabitsch W, Richardson DM, Wingfield MJ, Liebhold AM, Duncan RP (2016) Temporal and interspecific variation in rates of spread for insect species invading Europe during the last 200 years. Biol Invasions 18(4):907–920Google Scholar
  106. Santi F, Maini S (2011) New association between Dryocosmus kuriphilus and Torymus flavipes in chestnut trees in the Bologna area (Italy): first results. Bull Insectol 64:275–278Google Scholar
  107. Sartor S, Dini F, Torello Marinoni D, Melano MG, Beccaro GL, Alma A, Quacchia A, Botta R (2015) Impact of the Asian wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu) on cultivated chestnut: yield loss and cultivar susceptibility. Sci Hort 197:454–460Google Scholar
  108. Schönrogge K, Moriya S, Melika G, Randle Z, Begg T, Aebi A, Stone GN (2006) Early parasitoid recruitment in invading cynipid galls. In: Ozaki K, Yukawa J, Ohgushi T, Price PW (eds) Galling arthropods and their associates: ecology and evolution. Springer, Tokyo, pp 91–102Google Scholar
  109. Seljak G (2006) Chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, report. Phytosanitary Administration of the Republic of Slovenia [Online].
  110. Shimura I (1972) Studies on the breeding of chestnut, Castanea spp. II. Parasitic variation in the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu. Bull Hortic Res Stn A11:1–13Google Scholar
  111. Shimura I (1973) Studies on the breeding behaviours of several characters in chestnut, Castanea spp. III. Damages variation in the chestnut cultivars by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu. Jpn J Breed 23:311–319Google Scholar
  112. Shiraga T (1951) Problems and control of the chestnut gall wasp. Nogyô oyobi Engei (Agric Hortic) 26:167–170Google Scholar
  113. Shirakami T (1951) Chestnut gall wasps and their control. Nogyo oyobi Engei (Agric Hortic) 26:167–170 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  114. Stone GN, Schönrogge K, Atkinson RJ, Bellido D, Pujade-Villar J (2002) The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Annu Rev Entomol 47:633–668Google Scholar
  115. Tamura M (1962) Occurrence of the chestnut gall wasp in Korea. Kontyu 30:251 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  116. Ueno W (2006) Occurrence and control of chestnut gall wasp in Nepal. Shokubutsu Boeki (Plant Prot) 60:510–512 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  117. Ugolini F, Massetti L, Pedrazzoli F, Tognetti R, Vecchione A, Zulini L, Maresi G (2014) Ecophysiological responses and vulnerability to other pathologies in European chestnut coppices, heavily infested by the Asian chestnut gall wasp. For Ecol Manage 314:38–49Google Scholar
  118. Warmund MR (2011) Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) as a niche crop in the central region of the United States. HortScience 46:345–347Google Scholar
  119. Yara K, Sasawaki T, Kunimi Y (2010) Hybridization between introduced Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and indigenous T. beneficus (late-spring strain), parasitoids of the Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Biol Control 54:14–18Google Scholar
  120. Yasumatsu K (1951) A new Dryocosmus injurious to chestnut trees in Japan. Mushi 22:89–92Google Scholar
  121. Yasumatsu K, Kamijo K (1979) Chalcidoid parasites of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Cynipidae) in Japan, with descriptions of five new species (Hymenoptera). Esakia 14:93–111Google Scholar
  122. Zhang Z (2009) Study approaches on the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in China. Acta Hortic 844:425–432Google Scholar
  123. Zhu D-H, Liu Z, Lu P-F, Yang X-H, Su C-Y, Liu P (2015) New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China. J Insect Sci 15:1–7Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitrios N. Avtzis
    • 1
    Email author
  • George Melika
    • 2
  • Dinka Matošević
    • 3
  • David R. Coyle
    • 4
  1. 1.Hellenic Agricultural Organization DemeterForest Research InstituteVassilika, ThessaloníkiGreece
  2. 2.Plant Health and Molecular Biology LaboratoryNational Food Chain Safety Office, Directorate of Plant Protection, Soil Conservation and Agri-EnvironmentBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Division for Forest Protection and Game ManagementCroatian Forest Research InstituteJastrebarskoCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Forestry and Environmental ConservationClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

Personalised recommendations