Large-scale spatial dynamics of Drosophila suzukii in Trentino, Italy
- 714 Downloads
Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive alien species devastating soft fruit crops in newly invaded territories. Little is known about the importance and potential of long-distance dispersal at a regional scale. The goal of this work is to investigate D. suzukii dispersal ability during different times of the season, and along an elevational gradient in a mountain valley in Trentino Province, Italy. We employed a mark–release–recapture strategy using protein markers. Flies were recaptured using fruit-baited traps. The protein-marked flies were positively identified using ELISA procedure. Additional microsatellite analyses were performed on D. suzukii collected during autumn at different elevations to characterize the population structure. Results suggest that a portion of the local D. suzukii population moves from low to high elevations during spring and summer and travels back to low elevations in autumn. Genetic analysis further revealed that samples collected during autumn at different elevations belong to the same population. These results show that D. suzukii are able to fly up to about 9000 m away from the marking point and that seasonal breezes likely facilitate long-distance movement. We suggest that these migrations have multiple functions for D. suzukii, including conferring the ability to exploit gradual changes of temperature, food, and ovipositional resources in spring and autumn, as well as to assist in the search for suitable overwintering sites in late autumn. Our findings help to unveil the complex ecology of D. suzukii in Italian mountainous regions and provide important clues for improving the efficacy of integrated pest management control techniques to combat this pest.
KeywordsSpotted wing drosophila Mark–release–recapture Seasonal movement ELISA Microsatellite markers Abiotic factors
We thank Joe Russo of ZedX inc. (Bellefonte, PA) for supplying the CFSR weather data. The supply of these weather data was supported by the USDA-NIFA AFRI Competitive Grants Program Food Security Challenge Area grant 2015-68004-23179. We thank Elisabetta Leonardelli for the technical support. We also thank Linda Brewer who helped with the English language revision.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
- Asplen MK, Anfora G, Biondi A, Choi DS, Chu D, Daane KM, Gibert P, Gutierrez AP, Hoelmer KA, Hutchinson WD, Isaacs R, Jiang ZL, Kárpáti Z, Kimura MT, Pascual M, Philips CR, Plantamp C, Ponti L, Vétek G, Vogt H, Walton VM, Yu Y, Zappalà L, Desneux N (2015) Invasion biology of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): a global perspective and future priorities. J Pest Sci 88:469–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cini A, Ioriatti C, Anfora G (2012) A review of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and a draft research agenda for integrated pest management. Bull Insectology 65(1):149–160Google Scholar
- Coviella CEC, Garcia JFJ, Jeske DDR, Redak R, Luck RF (2006) Feasibility of tracking within-field movements of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and estimating its densities using fluorescent dusts in mark-release. J Econ 99(4):1051–1057Google Scholar
- Dalton DT, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Walsh DB, Caprile J, Isaacs R (2011) Laboratory survival of Drosophila suzukii under simulated winter conditions of the Pacific Northwest and seasonal field trapping in five primary regions of small and stone fruit production in the United States. Pest Manag Sci 67:1368–1374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Farnsworth D, Hamby KA, Bolda M, Goodhue RE, Williams JC, Zalom FG (2017) Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry. Pest Manag Sci 73(6):1083–1090CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fraimout A, Loiseau A, Price DK, Xuereb A, Martin J-F, Vitalis R, Fellous S, Debat V, Estoup A (2015) New set of microsatellite markers for the spotted-wing Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): a promising molecular tool for inferring the invasion history of this major insect pest. Eur J Entomol 112(4):855–859Google Scholar
- Giovannini L, Antonacci G, Zardi D, Laiti L, Panziera L (2013) Atlante climatico del Trentino. Sensitivity of simulated wind speed to spatial resolution over complex terrain. Energy Proc 59C:323–329Google Scholar
- Kanzawa T (1939) Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats. Kofu. Rev of Appl Entomol 29:622Google Scholar
- Kimura MT, Toda MJ, Beppu A, Watabe H (1977) Breeding sites of drosophilid flies in and near Sapporo, northern Japan, with supplementary notes on adult feeding habits. Kontyu 45:571–582Google Scholar
- Klick J, Yang WQ, Walton VM, Dalton DT, Hagler JR, Dreves AJ, Lee JC, Bruck DJ (2015) Distribution and activity of Drosophila suzukii in cultivated raspberry and surrounding vegetation. J App Entomol 140(1–2):37–46Google Scholar
- Magarey RD, Borchert DM, Fowler GA, Hong SC (2015) The NCSU/APHIS plant pest forecasting system (NAPPFAST). In: Venette R (ed) Pest risk modelling and mapping for invasive alien species. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
- Ometto L, Cestaro A, Ramasamy S, Grassi A, Revadi S, Siozios S, Moretto M, Fontana P, Varotto C, Pisani D, Dekker T, Wrobel N, Viola R, Pertot I, Cavalieri D, Blaxter M, Anfora G, Rota-Stabelli O (2013) Linking genomics and ecology to investigate the complex evolution of an invasive Drosophila pest. Genome Biol Evol 5:745–757CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Riley JR, Reynolds DR, Mukhopadhyay S, Ghosh MR (1995) Long distance migration of aphids and other small insects in northeast India. Eur J Entomol 92:639–653Google Scholar
- Stefanescu C, Páramo F, Åkesson S, Alarcón M, Ávila A, Brereton T, Carnicer J, Cassar LF, Fox R, Heliölä J, Hill JH, Hirneisen N, Kjellén N, Kühn E, Kuussaari M, Leskinen M, Liechti F, Musche M, Regan EC, Reynolds DR, Roy DB, Ryrholm N, Schmaljohann H, Settele J, Thomas CD, Van Swaay C, Chapman JW (2013) Multi-generational long-distance migration of insects: studying the painted lady butterfly in the western Palaearctic. Ecography (Cop.) 36(4):474–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wolfram S (1991) Mathematica, a system for doing mathematics by computer. Math Gaz 77(478):52–70Google Scholar