Is Drosophila suzukii as susceptible to entomopathogenic nematodes as Drosophila melanogaster?
- 109 Downloads
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is the major invasive pest of small, soft-skinned and stone fruits, with a wide range of hosts. This study aims to test the susceptibility of this insect to entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their efficacy on infested fruits from first instar larvae to adult emergence. Drosophila suzukii and D. melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) were susceptible to Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), Steinernema sp. (glaseri group) (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) on two substrates (filter paper and agar). The greater efficacy against D. suzukii was achieved by S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae (94 and 84%, respectively) with equal efficacy than that obtained using D. melanogaster as host (93.37 and 92.88%, respectively). The EPNs infected and could reproduce inside D. suzukii larvae. In contrast, pupae of both species were not infected by them. Nematodes proved to be able to reduce adult emergence of D. suzukii (up to 35% by S. feltiae) on strawberry fruit under laboratory conditions. These results show that D. suzukii is as susceptible as D. melanogaster to EPNs, confirming the potential of these nematodes as biological control agents against this important pest.
KeywordsEntomopathogenic nematode Biological control Steinernematidae Heterorhabditidae
We are especially grateful to IRTA-Cabrils for providing the adults of D. suzukii. We would like to thank the Unit of Genetics of the Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona for providing the adults of D. melanogaster, the drosophila diet and technical support for rearing. We thank José Antonio Pérez from the Servicio de Sanidad Vegetal (Junta de Extremadura) for providing the soil for the isolation of the strain Ext4 of S. feltiae. We also thank Magda Galeano from Koppert, for providing the commercial strain of H. bacteriophora Larvanem®. Finally, we thank the anonymous referees and editor for their constructive comments to improve this paper.
The research presented in this paper was partially funded by a Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Project (AGL2011-24194).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Asplen MK, Anfora G, Biondi A, Choi DS, Chu D, Daane KM, Gibert P, Gutierrez AP, Hoelmer KA, Hutchison WD, Isaacs R, Jiang Z-L, Kárpáti Z, Kimura MT, Pascual M, Philips CR, Plantamp C, Ponti L, Vétek G, Vogt H, Walton VM, Yu Y, Zappalà L, Desneux N (2015) Invasion biology of spotted-wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): a global perspective and future priorities. J Pest Sci 88:469–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Begley JW (1990) Efficacy against insects in habitats others than soil. In: Gaugler R, Kaya HK (eds) Entomopathogenic nematodes in biological control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 215–231Google Scholar
- Cini A, Ioratti C, Anfora G (2012) A review of the invasion of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and a draft research agenda for integrated pest management. Bull Insectol 65:149–160Google Scholar
- Daane KM, Wang XG, Biondi A, Miller B, Miller JC, Riedl H, Shearer PW, Guerrieri E, Giorgini M, Buffington M, van Achterberg K, Song Y, Kang T, Yi H, Jung C, Lee DW, Chung BK, Hoelmer KA, Walton VW (2016) First foreign exploration for Asian parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii. J Pest Sci 89(3):823–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- De Ros G, Anfora G, Grassi A, Ioriatti C (2013) The potential economic impact of Drosophila suzukii on small fruits production in Trentino (Italy). IOBC-WPRS Bull 91:317–321Google Scholar
- Ebrahimi L, Shiri MR, Dunphy GB (2016) Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae against the vegetable leaf miner, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Egypt J Biol Pest Control 26(3):583–586Google Scholar
- Hominick WM, Reid AP (1990) Perspectives of entomopathogenic nematology. In: Gaugler R, Kaya HK (eds) Entomopathogenic nematodes biological control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 327–343Google Scholar
- Kanzawa T (1939) Studies on Drosophila suzukii mats. Yamanashi Agricultural Experimental Station, KofuGoogle Scholar
- Kawase S, Uchino K, Yasuda M, Motoori S (2008) Netting control of cherry Drosophila Drosophila suzukii injurious to blueberry. Bull Chiba Prefect Agric Res Cent 7:9–15Google Scholar
- Klein MG (1990) Efficacy against soil-inhabiting insect pests. In: Gaugler R, Kaya HK (eds) Entomopathogenic nematodes biological control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 195–214Google Scholar
- Lindegren JE, Meyer KF, Henneberry TJ, Vail PV, Forlow Jech LJ, Valero KA (1993) Susceptibility of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) soil associated stages to the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Southwest Entomol 18:113–120Google Scholar
- Mahmoud MF, Mandour NS, Pomazkov YI (2007) Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode Sterneinema feltiae cross N33 against larvae and pupae of four fly species in the laboratory. Nematol Medit 35:221–226Google Scholar
- Wiman NG, Dalton DT, Anfora G, Biondi A, Chiu JC, Daane KM, Gerdeman B, Gottardello A, Hamby KA, Isaacs R, Grassi A, Ioriatti C, Lee JC, Miller B, Rossi-Stacconi MV, Shearer PW, Tanigoshi L, Wang XG, Walton VM (2016) Drosophila suzukii population response to environment and management strategies. J Pest Sci 89(3):653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Woodring JL, Kaya HK (1998) Steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes: a handbook of techniques. South Cooper Bull 331:1–30Google Scholar
- Zhang C-L, Zhang Y-H, He W-Y, Huang J-B, Zhou L-Y, Ning H, Wu Z-P, Wang D-N, Ke D-C (2011) Integrated control technology of cherry fruit flies and experimental demonstration in Aba, Sichuan province. China Plant Prot 31:2628Google Scholar