Rapid harvest schedules and fruit removal as non-chemical approaches for managing spotted wing Drosophila
Spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has caused significant economic losses to small fruit and berry growers throughout the USA and Europe since its invasion. This pest can lay many eggs over its lifetime within ripening and ripe berries, causing yield loss and the risk of fruit contamination. Zero tolerance for this pest has led to increased use of broad-spectrum insecticides to control it, which are costly and pose many other sustainability and pest management concerns. There is an urgent need to evaluate management strategies that can decrease reliance on chemical controls and mitigate economic losses. Over two growing seasons, we compared harvest schedules for their effect on infestation by D. suzukii, revealing that fruit harvested every 1 or 2 days had significantly fewer D. suzukii larvae than a 3-day harvest schedule. Furthermore, we found that yield per unit effort was highest on a 2-day schedule. Sanitation of the crop is another important component of a successful integrated pest management program, and we found that bagging infested waste berries killed 99% of larvae after 32 h, with higher fruit temperatures in clear bags than white or black bags. In combination, these methods can reduce the effects of this invasive pest on raspberry production. This study will provide guidance to growers on culturally based IPM tactics to decrease reliance on chemical management.
KeywordsRubus idaeus Cultural control Integrated pest management Harvest frequency Sanitation
We thank Abigail Cohen, Emilie Cole, John Jentzen, Jaclyn Stone, and Taylor Zachar for technical assistance on this project. This research was supported by the TunnelBerries project funded by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Agriculture, under The Specialty Crops Research Initiative program (agreement 2014-51181-22380). Additional funding was provided by the North Central Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program (Award 2014-38640-22156). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the US Department of Agriculture.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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